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This is the global news podcast from the BBC World Service. I'm Jacki Lyden. At 13 hours GMT on Tuesday, the 25th of August, these are our main stories. The former Bosnian Serb military leader Ratko Mladic has begun an appeal against his genocide conviction. The authorities in Gaza have imposed a two day lockdown to try to prevent an outbreak of the coronavirus in the territory's crowded population. And Afghanistan's first female film director has been shot by unknown gunmen.


Also in this podcast is a single cell in your skeleton that can give rise to a hardbound the spongy bone in your bone marrow and cartilage.


How Stanford University scientists have succeeded in growing new cartilage in the joints of arthritic mice. Three years ago, the former Bosnian Serb leader, Ratko Mladic, was jailed for life after being found guilty of genocide and crimes against humanity during the Bosnian war in the 1990s. Mr. Mladic, known as the Butcher of Bosnia, led forces during the massacre of thousands of men and boys in Srebrenica in 1995. Today, a U.N. court at The Hague has begun hearing his appeal against the conviction.


In her opening presentation, one of Mr. Mladic, his lawyers, Peter Lewis Baggot, told the court that acquitting Mr. Mladic would be difficult for them, but it was what justice demanded.


What we invite the chamber to do may not be easy or popular, but in my submission, it is right. It is right because it will represent the dispassionate application of the law. It is right because it will represent that. This chamber recognizes that the fundamental principle of a right to a fair trial is more than just empty rhetoric.


Our correspondent Anna Holligan is following the case and told us more about Mr. Mladic, his original conviction.


His name has become synonymous with the massacre in Srebrenica in 1995. More than 8000 mostly Muslim men and boys slaughtered, executed. Their bodies are still being dug up today. Such was the extent of the killing, the worst on European soil since the Holocaust. We often say that the Sarajevo massacre, 44 months of relentless shelling and sniping the people in the capital and the taking of 200 UN hostages were among the crimes. But today, what's been most notable is how complicated it is to conduct international justice in a time of coronavirus.


Because there have been so many technical difficulties inside the courtroom, many of the staff are separated by perspex screens. Ratko Mladic himself came in wearing a blue mask. He's now sitting very quietly following the proceedings. The security staff on either side of him are wearing visors.


But most critically in all of this jacket is that the judges, three of the judges are following the proceedings remotely via video link. And the connection seems so unstable that at one point Ratko Mladic, his defense lawyer, asked if the presiding judge could tell her where she'd left off and she wasn't able to. She said she was going to have to check back on on the transcript. So this is far from ideal and is playing into the defense's arguments that actually these hearings should never be going ahead because they are so critical to basically determining whether or not Ratko Mladic will walk free or spend the rest of his life behind bars.


So clearly, the logistics and the practical side of this are incredibly complicated. But moving on to the procedure itself, tell us a little bit about the nature of his appeal. So he is appealing on nine counts. He argues that the conviction was based on unsound history, that it should be quashed and the whole thing overturned. He should be acquitted. His lawyers are just starting to go through some of the previous cases, which they say shouldn't have formed the basis for his conviction on the other side.


The prosecution is saying it didn't go far enough in recognizing the scale of his genocidal intent, because if you cast your mind back, this was all about ethnic cleansing, which he argued was never his intention. And we won't actually be getting a verdict until next spring.


Anna Holligan, the Gaza Strip is one of the most densely populated and poorest areas of the world. It's 365 square kilometers are home to one point eight. Five million Palestinians. Living conditions are desperately cramped and perfect for the spread of a pandemic. Hence the fear following the discovery of the first cases of coronavirus outside the territory's quarantine centers. Our Middle East analyst is Alan Johnston.


As you know, the Gaza Strip exists in really rather extraordinary circumstances. Its continual security tensions with Israel and Egypt means that it's under almost perpetual blockade. It's very difficult to come and go from Gaza. And the authorities there turn that, if you like, to their advantage. When it came to combating the coronavirus, they were able to put anybody entering Gaza into these quarantine centers where they had to stay for 21 days, three weeks. So they managed to contain the disease there.


There are about 110 cases and one death, but all in the quarantine centers. But Gaza's look, I'm afraid, seems to have run out there overnight. We understood that a woman who'd left Gaza was tested positive, I think, in Jerusalem. And it seems that four members of her family in the Gaza refugee camp in central Gaza have also tested positive. So. That means the disease is now out into the general population, and obviously that's going to be very dangerous in this very, very poor, overcrowded society.


It is indeed. Many people have worried since the beginning of the global pandemic what this may mean if it took hold in Gaza. As you were saying, there are conditions there that I'm afraid are perfect for the spread of disease. Huge numbers of people crowded in extended families, young people living with much older people, not always the best sanitary conditions and medical facilities that are always stretched and under-resourced. And the authorities have moved quickly to try to contain this danger.


A 48 hour curfew, businesses, schools, mosques, even access to the beach all stopped and police cars touring the streets, urging people with loudspeakers to stay in and observe the curfew.


That was Alan Johnston. Schools in the South Korean capital, Seoul have been ordered to switch to online classes as the authorities try to tackle an increase in coronavirus cases there. The country was widely praised for controlling the initial outbreak of the virus with extensive testing and tracing rather than imposing a strict lockdown. Our correspondent in Seoul, Laura Becker, told us about the new measures. Well, this is within grace are still.


So you are talking about 25 million people. You're talking about seven thousand schools, all with the exception of third year pupils who are still preparing for this very crucial university entrance exam in December. But, yes, it is a huge area. It is a big step here from the local governments. The reason? Well, they feel that it's a necessary step to hundreds. Nearly 200 pupils and staff over the last two weeks have been infected with coronavirus as this outbreak continues.


Now, I know when it comes to these kind of numbers, you know, you're seeing just under 300 infections here today. I think globally everyone will perhaps raise an eyebrow. But for South Korea, these three digit increases every day for the last 12 days have amounted to what they believe is an impending crisis. They believe they are on the verge of a nationwide outbreak of coronavirus. And this is one of the measures that they're taking to try to get it under control.


What are the sorts of measures are being taken? They shut down high risk facilities, karaoke bars, nightclubs. They are urging churches to stop gathering. This is where certainly in a number of right wing Presbyterian churches are, where many of the clusters have started and a number of them gathered in the center of Seoul at a huge rally on August the 15th. And that has enabled the virus to spread as well. So they're urging churches to stop gathering in large numbers and hold their services online.


The government is looking at the top level of social distancing that would be level three that would see businesses closed down. And so now we have not seen that since this pandemic began. And within the last few hours, we've had a very stark, very solemn warning for Korea from Korea. Center for Disease Control. The deputy director, Quan, made this plea not only for everyone who's involved in this outbreak to go and get tested, but many of these church members believe that this is part of a conspiracy by the government to shut them down, which is why they're not cooperating with authorities.


But he also urged people within greater Seoul to observe mask wearing and to try to keep socially distant, to try to keep to these measures for the next few weeks as they bring this outbreak under control. Remember, South Korea was held up as this model. They're testing, they're tracking, they're tracing is one of the best in the world. If they cannot get this under control, it shows you just how difficult this virus is to contain.


That was Laura Becker in Seoul. The Belarussian opposition leader, Svetlana Tikhonov skier, has said that a peaceful revolution is underway in Belarus and she's invited the authorities to start negotiating. Addressing the European Parliament must take an Oscar said opposition protests were neither anti Russian nor pro-European, but a democratic revolution. President Alexander Lukashenko has shown no signs of compromise. He's described the opposition protesters as rats and Nazis. And when he was seen at the weekend in full combat gear holding a rifle, it wasn't hard to pick up the message.


Our correspondent Steve Rosenberg has been to the town of Solid Gorske, 160 kilometers from the capital, Minsk.


Outside the courthouse in Solley Gorske, 200 people are shouting freedom.


They've come to support Anatoly.


Boucle head of the strike committee at the local potash company, he's on trial accused of organizing anti-government protests.


They pulled the lever inside and told his friends and workmates, take out their wallets and give whatever they can to hire him a last minute lawyer. It's a display of solidarity, but there is an air of pessimism, a feeling that the strikes in Belarus are failing to force political change.


Jason Formatters, the mother of one of the strikers, Rahmon, tells me that 6000 potash workers had voted for industrial action in protest at police brutality and a rigged presidential election. But only 40 are still on strike.


The others have been scared into returning to work under threat of prosecution, despite huge street protests and industrial unrest. President Lukashenko is still in power and fighting back by targeting strikes and political opponents. In Minsk yesterday, two senior members of the opposition's coordination council were arrested, and former minister Pavel Matushka, who's on the council, has been called in for questioning.


They want to demonstrate to us back to the same situation that it was during the last 26 years. But I'm sure the changes which start in Belarus these days, we have no road back. We have only road to the future.


Back at the courthouse, sentence delivered to the local hero emerges.


What a guy they chant as strike leader Anatoly Bockl punches the air. He's been found guilty and fined the equivalent of 200 pounds.


First, you want to tell him I spoke with Anatoly.


Urges people not to desert the cause. If we are few, he says, then we will fail.


But some here are losing hope. So is of Madame and they will strengthen.


The security forces are fully on Lucashenko side. Businessman Ruslan says our peaceful protests are not enough against a dictator.


The president's out of control, says Tatiana. We need to find a doctor to examine him.


Can he not see that his people hate him when suddenly visit because they were in there for as long as they can.


The protesters of Solek will be trying to make that point very clear.


Steve Rosenberg reporting from Belarus, Afghanistan's first female film director, Saba Sahad has been shot on her way to work in the capital, Kabul. Her husband says she was hit in the waist and is recovering in hospital. MassArt, who is also one of the country's best known actresses, now works for the Interior Ministry. Our South Asia editor, Jill McGivern reports.


It's still unclear who was behind the shooting of Sarposa had. For years, she's had a high profile, glamorous image and been willing to speak out on such controversial issues as women's rights, corruption and the importance of the film industry. Her family also suggests it may have been her role with the Ministry of Interior working with the special police, which led to her being targeted. She started acting as a child, but then just as she was writing a screenplay, the Taliban came to power and she fled to neighboring Pakistan.


She says she had the chance to settle in the United States, but decided instead to return to Afghanistan after 2001 to help with efforts to revive the film industry becoming the first female director as well as a leading actress. She established her reputation when one of her first feature films, The Law, proved a big hit. She also directed and starred in a police drama series playing a feisty action heroine who conquered injustice and corruption. More recently, her focus has been on her work with government forces.


Jill McCaffrey. Now to a rather unusual experiment with cannabis in Poland. Animals at a zoo in the capital, Warsaw, are to be given hemp oil to see if it reduces their anxiety. The first to be given the CBD oil will be the elephants, which are apparently prone to stress and relatively easy to monitor. Although derived from a cannabis plant compound, the oil does not cause any feeling of intoxication. From Warsaw, Adam Easton reports.


The first animal to be fed the cannabis derived oil is a young African elephant named Freja. She has been displaying signs of stress since the death several months ago of Urna, the largest and oldest female elephant at the zoo. The animal's keeper said Phleger and her companion Booba have experienced difficulties establishing a new hierarchy between themselves that could take months or even years for elephants to cope with the loss of the herd.


Elder. The oil is thought to stimulate the production of serotonin and dopamine, which can help combat depression, the CBD oil will be administered directly to the elephants mouths or mixed in with their food. Their health will be regularly checked through blood tests.


If successful, Warsaw Zoo plans to expand the project and feed the oil to other stressed animals, including rhinos and bears.


Adam Easten in Warsaw. Still to come, we feel that no child or young person should be disadvantaged in the care that they receive due to the color of their skin. And we need to do better as a profession. We want to reduce these inequalities. We'll hear about the project aiming to increase the diversity of pediatric skin images so vital symptoms don't get missed. Republicans in the United States have warned that replacing President Trump with the Democrat, Joe Biden would ruin the economy and leave the country at the mercy of aggressive foreign powers.


On the first day of the Republican Party's national convention, delegates said Mr Biden would be a radically left wing leader. They defended Mr Trump's handling of the coronaviruses pandemic and rejected accusations that he had inflamed racial divisions and lacked empathy as the convention kicked off. Opinion polls suggested that Mr Trump trailed his Democratic challenger. Nick Bryant has this report.


It's time to deliver a victory for the American people.


It's tempting to view the Trump years as a presidency that primarily plays out on Twitter. But it's television that's always fascinated the former reality TV star. And over four nights of primetime programming, Donald Trump is going to be the star of his own show.


These are my friends. These are the incredible workers that helped us so much with the covid.


In this segment, he hosted a group of frontline covid workers, none of them wearing protective masks, all of them admiring of his handling of the coronavirus. This was a nurse who offered grateful. Thanks.


I am so in all of your leadership. Well, I'm for the nurses and for the doctors and for everybody.


When the China virus invaded our country, we launched the greatest mobilization of American society since World War Two.


In a country with the biggest covid death toll in the world, Donald Trump was lavished with praise for his masterly management of the crisis, and the virus was mainly spoken of in the past tense, as if it had gone away.


They want to steal your liberty, your freedom. They want to control what you see and think. This was the high decibel speech of the TV personality.


Kimberly Guilfoyle may want to enslave you to the weak, dependent liberal victim ideology to that point that you will not recognize this country or yourself.


And on a night where speaker after speaker condemned cancel culture, political correctness, the radical left and the riots during America's summer of racial protest, a slot was allotted to Mark and Patsy McCloskey, a couple that famously brandished guns at Black Lives Matter protesters who marched past their home.


President Trump will defend the God given right of every American to protect their homes and their families.


But people of color were also given prominent roles in an attempt to expand Donald Trump's largely white base.


Joe Biden and Kamala Harris won a cultural revolution.


This was Tim Scott, an African-American senator from South Carolina, who spoke of how his family had gone, as he put it, from cotton to Congress in one lifetime in this land of opportunity. He portrayed Joe Biden as a prisoner of the left.


They all turn our country into a socialist utopia.


And history has taught us that path only leads to pain and misery, especially for hard working people hoping to rise.


America is not a racist country.


This was another Republican rising star, Donald Trump's first ambassador to the United Nations, Nikki Haley.


Joe Biden and the Democrats are still blaming America first.


Donald Trump has always put America first, and star billing is being given to the next generation of Trump's Donald Junior launching an excoriating attack on the candidate who wants to oust his father from the White House.


It's almost like this election is shaping up to be church work in school versus rioting, looting and vandalism or in the words of Biden and the Democrats, peaceful protesting. This was a slick production broadcast in the main from a temple like auditorium in Washington bedecked with American flags and along with the Republican red meat came lashings of Trump prime steak. The president was described at one point as the bodyguard of Western civilization and portrayed throughout the evening as the guardian of the American way of life.


Defending the country from the Democratic radical left, the Republican convention has become the Trump Show a night one demonstrated how the party has taken on his personality.


It's called Promises Made Promises. That report by Nick Bryant, 4500 kilometers away from the Republican convention in the state of Wisconsin, hundreds of demonstrators faced off with police for a second night in the city of Kenosha in defiance of an emergency overnight curfew. Officers fired tear gas at protesters who threw projectiles at the courthouse. They were protesting after a black man, Jacob Blake, was shot seven times in the back by a white police officer. He remains in intensive care.


CBS News correspondent Pauline Lee has been outside the courthouse in Kenosha.


This is probably as peaceful as it has been for the past maybe four hours or so. Before that, it was several hours of tear gas and it was met by bottles of water bottles, glass and plastic from the protesters here. But in the middle of the night, at about eleven thirty, our time was really when chaos erupted here in Kenosha. We counted at least six fires burning in the night sky throughout the city. So the intensity has definitely spread from just this area outside of the courthouse through the entire city as of day two of these ongoing protests.


Clyde Macklemore from the Lake County, Illinois, chapter of Black Lives Matter was at the protests.


These were all black and white and Latinos. It all races. Everybody is sick and tired of the police to wear this thing every day here of about 100 police out there and not one police was of color. First day was shooting rubber bullets with mace and they saw it didn't work. So then they came back and they brought in the sheriff's SWAT team and started shooting tear gas, trying to clear the park out. Was nothing going on? They just started shooting.


I got gas. I got gassed. I was on the front lines. And when they start shooting the movie, I got gassed.


Clyde Macklemore now to a story that demonstrates the importance of diversity in medicine. Medical students, when they're diagnosing measles, say they are often taught to look for a red rash.


But on darker skin, there's no redness, just bumps. Now a group of international doctors is working to prevent dangerous illnesses in children from being missed by creating a database of images showing what they look like on different skin tones. The Skin Deep project is led by the Royal London Hospital. Ali Costello has more.


The skin deep campaign say that historically medical textbooks around the world mainly contain images of children and young people with lighter skin tones. The descriptions of illnesses often focus on the readiness of rashes or the pallor of the face and hands, both of which are either absent or more difficult to recognise on darker skin. Now, a UK based project is aiming to improve the diversity of images of pediatric skin conditions available online so that conditions like meningitis or measles don't get messed.


The Skin Deep Project says textbooks also need updating to accurately represent the multicultural society in which we live and the children and young people that medical professionals come into contact with on a daily basis. Dr Sharna Shanmugam, Vagisil, a paediatric registrar, outlines the aims of the project.


We feel that no child or young person should be disadvantaged in the care that they receive due to the colour of their skin, and we need to do better as a profession. We want to reduce these inequalities and our aim is really to develop a global free, open access bank of high quality photographs of medical conditions in a range of skin tones. And this is not just for use by health care professionals for also the general public.


Skin Deep is now calling on health care professionals and hospitals to collaborate on the project. And they're asking parents and guardians of children to submit photos to their websites. They hope that having a diverse database could help all young people to be diagnosed and treated quickly and correctly. Ali Costello.


Tens of millions of people around the world suffer from osteoarthritis. The often excruciating joint pains are caused by lost or damaged cartilage, which normally acts as a cushion between bones. It has been thought that cartilage, once gone, couldn't grow back. But now researchers at Stanford University have succeeded in doing just that well in mice anyway. So although it's still a long way from being used in humans, Dr Mykelti Longacre, who directs the program in regenerative medicine at Stanford, told Lawrence Poulard it was an exciting development.


Our laboratory was lucky enough to discover skeletal stem cells. In mice and in humans, and you have it exactly right, that is a single cell in your skeleton that can give rise to hard bone, the spongy bone in your bone marrow and cartilage. So what we're doing is reactivating cells that are normally in the ends of your bone by doing small holes called microfracture surgery.


This is quite incredible. Now, the stem cell is a kind of a magic thing. It's but is the basic building block. And as I understand it, what you can do is you can nudge it to produce one of several things. As you said there, it can be hard bone, soft bone or cartilage.


So what you do is you say there's just one cell at the end of my bone, let's take my knees, which really need new cartilage. So you're saying at the top and the bottom of my shinbone and my thigh bone, there is a cell that you ideally could tickle in a way unproduced to grow more cartilage? That's correct.


It's not one cell. It's a population of cells. But you have it exactly right. If you could coach them or nudge them to go to cartilage only, how would you do that in the case? The big clue here is if your cartilage is torn, it has no blood supply, it will not heal. So the orthopedic surgeon will look into the arthroscope in your joint and take it out if it's torn and frayed. We took that to say if we could stop blood supply genes that make blood supply in the in the skull stem cell environment, we could activate them with some more generic protein, which stimulates new bone but block vascular blood vessels coming in.


Would we get cartilage? And the answer was yes. We were able to regenerate cartilage in the knees of mice that were had arthritis.


So what is the impact that it has on the mice? Do I really have a sort of a cartoon like mental picture of a of a mouse hobbling along and then all of a sudden he's springing around? Yes.


In fact, you do have it right. Mice, you you destabilize their knee. For example, taking out some of the cartilage or taking out a ligament. They will then develop osteoarthritis as we do after such injuries. They will walk in a way that it reflects the pain and discomfort of that joint. So we had to show not only could we get the cartilage to regenerate, it would be there for the equivalent of two decades, four months in a mouse, if you will.


But we could also show that they grimace less when you stimulated that area in the body and they walked more requite excite.


You can judge this by the Bayport, the facial expression of the mouse.


Yeah, well, yes. Think of it that way. It was it was less painful and they walked more normally, which of course would translate to exactly what you would want. Fascinating.


So you can actually judge this is this is a whole other subject. Apart from your brilliant theory about cartilage, mice smile and grimace, do they?


Well, I'm not an expert in that part of mouse biology, but the answer is yes, you can measure that.


Dr. Michael Longacre from Stanford University talking to Lawrence Poulard, who has bad knees, apparently, and that's it from us for now.


But there will be an updated version of the Global News podcast later. If you would like to comment on this podcast, all the topics covered in it, do please send us an email. The address is Global Podcast at BBC, Dot Dot UK. Also, thank you to Mark in Germany and Lisa in Georgia, USA and the others who have sent in the photos of their global news news. Choose a low end. Thank you very much. I'm Jackie Leonard and until next time, goodbye.


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