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[00:00:00]

This is the Global News podcast on the BBC World Service. I'm Joe Lieberman in the early hours of Tuesday, the 1st of September. These are the main stories. Joe Biden challenges President Trump on law and order, asking voters if they feel safe with a leader who can't control supporters.

[00:00:17]

Australia says China is holding without charge one of its citizens, who's been a prominent news anchor on Chinese state TV. And new figures show the Indian economy has been devastated by the pandemic. Also in this podcast, he's clearing all the bushes around him.

[00:00:36]

He wants to be the only leader without opposition.

[00:00:42]

The hero of the Oscar nominated movie Hotel Rwanda and a critic of the country's president is arrested.

[00:00:52]

We start this podcast in the United States where the Democratic presidential nominee, Joe Biden, has directly addressed weeks of street violence and the accusation that he's allowed his opponent, Donald Trump, to dominate the issue to his electoral advantage. President Trump has committed to ensuring, in his words, law and order while trying to portray the Democrats as ineffectual and a threat to the security of Americans.

[00:01:15]

But now Mr. Biden has hit back as president long ago, forfeited any moral leadership in this country. He can't stop the violence because for years he's fomented it. You know, he may believe mouthing the words law and order makes him strong, but his failure to call on his own supporters to stop acting as an armed militia in this country shows how weak he is, not one to ignore comments from his rivals.

[00:01:44]

President Trump had this response to the wave of violence and destruction that we've seen in recent weeks and months has occurred in cities exclusively controlled and dominated by the Biden Joe Biden party. If you take a look at the top 10 in the country are Democrats, it's Democrat run cities and it's a shame and it can be solved so easy.

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Our correspondent in the United States, Peter Bowes, was listening to both speeches and I asked him about the political strategy at play with an election just over two months away.

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You know, I think what Joe Biden was trying to do, it almost is listening to it. It was like a checklist of the things of the lies that lies as far as Joe Biden sees it, that have come from Donald Trump about what Mr. Trump says Joe Biden believes in. And Joe Biden at pains to point out that he does condemn the violence on the streets. He's not essentially for defunding the police. He's for reforming the police. It was almost like this.

[00:02:43]

Was Joe Biden determined to put the record straight after last week's Republican Party convention speech by Donald Trump, which focused a lot of time on attacking Mr Biden. And I think what we're getting now is a very clear dividing of the battle lines, if you like. We understand where each of these parties are coming from quite clearly in terms of the trouble that we're seeing on the streets, the protests, the violent protests. Donald Trump is very clearly blaming the Democrats.

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It's interesting to me in his news conference, he didn't just say the Democrats. He said the party of Joe Biden. He really wants to link Mr Biden with a lot of the unrest that's happening around the country.

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Yes, he referred to the Joe Biden party and he also referred to the fact that Mr Biden made no reference to under God and taking out the phrase under God from the Pledge of Allegiance.

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Some Democrats fear, Peter, that Joe Biden could still lose this election despite the 180000 deaths due to covid-19 and a very weak economy. Mr Biden was stressing covid-19 today, wasn't he? Yeah, I think if he had his way, Joe Biden would want to fight this campaign. Much more on the government's response to the Trump administration's response to covid-19 and the failings that he sees that have been going on for for several months. That would seem to be easier ground in terms of the terrible tragedies that are still going on as we speak with covid-19, which is far from over.

[00:04:13]

But this issue of law and order continues to dominate the news headlines we saw just last night. There were protests outside the White House. Tomorrow, President Trump goes to Kenosha and Wisconsin where Jacob Blake was shot and seriously injured last week. A black man being shot multiple times in the back by a white police officer. And I think as long as these headlines are in the news and dominating certainly the thoughts of the president, it's something that Joe Biden is going to have to embrace and fight from his perspective.

[00:04:45]

Peter Bowes, the Australian foreign minister, says China has detained one of its citizens who is also a prominent journalist. Chong Li has worked for CGT and the English language arm of the Chinese state news network for almost eight years. If she is on the network interviewing the Finnish president, Soli, Nenita and 2019.

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Let's talk about that joint action plan. Yes, because you're really talking about this, a future oriented new type cooperative partnership. What does this document mean for the future of Assigner Finnish relations?

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Well, it kind of gives now, though, her profile and all clips of her interviews have been removed from the ETN website. I asked our Asia Pacific editor, Selahattin, about the significance of Chumley's arrest.

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This is really important because Cheng Li really became the face of much of the business coverage that appeared on English language Chinese state television, but also increasingly she was being used to present very politically sensitive coverage as well. For example, she was one of the presenters who was on the air at the start of this year's Chinese annual parliamentary session. So she was quite important. Then she suddenly disappeared around the 12th of August. And it's now known that she has disappeared into detention.

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We know that she's had one video call with the Australian authorities, but really, we don't know why she's under investigation. We don't know where she is. And importantly, we don't know how she is right now.

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Do we think that this could be part of some sort of political swap at some stage in the future?

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Well, it's important to note that she yes, she's a very high profile figure. She's an Australian passport holder. And that's what's really important here, because relations between China and Australia have really been in a deep freeze for the past few months now. They've been deteriorating for the past few years, I should say. But they really went into a new depth, really, when Australia called for an independent inquiry into the origins of covid-19, the origins of the coronavirus pandemic.

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Beijing took great affront to this and really started to cut a lot of trade ties, a lot of diplomatic ties. And now, of course, we know that Chen Lei has been detained. Now, it could be that this is a measure of hostage diplomacy. We've certainly seen this in China's recent relationship with Canada. The Chinese government is very upset that Canada enacted an extradition request from the United States to detain a top Chinese tech executive. They then detained two Canadians inside China.

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So it could be an extension of that. But at this point, we're really not sure.

[00:07:30]

Celia Hatton, the man who inspired the film Hotel Rwanda, has been paraded in the capital, Kigali, after being arrested in Belgium. Rwanda says he was mis portrayed in the film about the 1994 genocide.

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We stopped taking names after the president was murdered. This is the only guest list, there are no Europeans left. Of all the cockroaches.

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Now the American actor Don Cheadle portrayed the film's hero, Paul Rusesabagina, who saved hundreds of lives during the Rwandan genocide. I asked my colleague Richard Hamilton, why he had been detained.

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The Rwandan Investigation Bureau said that Paul Rusesabagina, who lives in Belgium, had been arrested with international cooperation.

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So two police officers in Kigali brought him to the headquarters of this Oribe, the Rwanda Investigation Bureau, and they let journalists film and take photos of him. And they said that he's been suspected of being a founder or a sponsor of violent armed extremist terror outfits. The Belgian authorities, prosecutors over there said they'd been informed of the arrest by the Rwandan authorities, but had no further details. It's thought that he set up an opposition movement called the Said, which actually has an armed wing, the FLN.

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And in 2011, he was accused of funding what they called subversion. But he's always maintained that he's been the victim of a smear campaign. And here he is speaking to the BBC back in 2012, criticizing the Rwandan president, Paul Kagame.

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His plan is more than clear. He's clearing all the bushes around him. He wants to be the only in insole leader without opposition, without anyone being a Tutsi who one day might raise a voice and say no to whatever he says or does.

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So many of us will have seen the film Hotel Rwanda. What did he do during the genocide in Rwanda a quarter of a century ago for which that film was made?

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So he was actually a hotel manager at the Hotel Mille Collines in Kigali. And at the time it was in the middle of the Rwandan genocide when around 800000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus were slaughtered in just 100 days. And he managed to shelter more than 1200 people in the hotel who'd taken refuge there. And he used his influence amongst the Hutu elite because he his father was a Hutu and his mother and wife were Tutsi. So he used his influence and actually used bribes to secure safe escape for those people.

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So he's generally credited with saving hundreds of lives. He went on to received many human rights awards and in fact, the US Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2005. But having said that, the Rwandan survivors group Abukar, criticized him and said that he'd exaggerated his role and made himself out to be the hero when in fact, he'd charged people for protecting them. So there's a counter narrative as well.

[00:10:50]

Richard Hamilton, five years ago in Germany, the Chancellor, Angela Merkel used the phrase version.

[00:10:55]

Does it means we can manage it? She was responding to mounting concerns that Germany would not be able to take in all of the refugees fleeing in huge numbers from the Syrian civil war at the time. It's a phrase that got her into political hot water and one she has distanced herself from a little bit since then. Our Berlin correspondent Jenny Hill was in a Munich railway station as Germans welcomed some of the new mostly Syrian arrivals. Now, five years later, Jenny has travelled back to Bavaria to meet some of the people involved in the moment, which changed the country and still divides opinion today.

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What struck me was the amazement on their faces, clutching bags and children, the men and women climbed off the train at Munich station and realized the crowd of cheering Germans was there to welcome them. It's five years since Angela Merkel aware that Europe's migrant crisis was no longer confined to its outer shores, said Vicious and us, we can do it. Hundreds of thousands of people would come to Germany hoping for the same warm welcome.

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I was proud of Germany because I enjoyed the willingness that Germany didn't hesitate to help the refugees.

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Carmen Meyerhold, who speaks Arabic, came to the station to volunteer as a translator.

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I think when we look back and the situation today or the doomsday scenarios didn't become true, we faced a humanitarian crisis. We could not have closed our doors. And it brought change to every part of Germany, Obinze back, a conservative Bavarian town of Church Spires and Cobbles, had to accommodate and integrate around 200 refugees if it's not before.

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What does he want? I still think it was a bit much for someone to sit in Berlin and say we could manage knowing full well it was up to each and every local mayor to have to manage over.

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Brundle, who's from the Bavarian sister party of Angela Merkel's CDU, is the mayor of Athens.

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Back then, Filey Lightnings Fingerstyle. If other EU countries had shared this burden, we wouldn't have had this level of political tension. If I could turn back time, I would ask much more of Europe on more along long ago.

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Instead of the angry, the fearful took to Germany's streets horrified by high profile migrant crime, the sexual assault of women in Cologne, or the terror attack on a Berlin Christmas market. As Angela Merkel battled a backlash, the far right flourished. Today, there are small but established part of the political landscape.

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But during that time, an Ernst Young Syrian man built a new life in Anspach Mohammed's learned German, got a job, had a family.

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It's it's like my home. Everything is good. We have residency like normal people. We have work. It's a good country. We have good neighbors. I like it a lot and.

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Yeah, yeah. But the story's not over. Not for those still trying to come to Europe and not for the board. Man who we met at a refugee home on the edge of allensbach Javid from Pakistan told us he was 16 when he arrived in Germany. He's now 21 and still awaiting permission to stay. This will help Levin's feelings, but I don't want to leave, he tells us in German. My future's here. At Munich station, Travellers' Wheel, their cases past a Corona test center five years ago.

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It was the refugee reception area. One crisis has overshadowed another.

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What we witnessed here in 2015 was extraordinary. The euphoria, the drama, the anger have now faded, but you can still feel the consequences of that moment. It changed politics that changed society. And many of the people who arrived here back then began begun to put down roots. They, too, will shape this country's future. Jenny Hill, a Rembrandt painting which had languished on scene in a basement for more than 50 years after being dismissed as a fake is finally going on public display.

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It's now thought that the work, entitled Head of a Bearded Man, is, after all, an original by the Dutch master or at least from one of his students. The painting will be shown at the Ashmolean Museum in England from Wednesday. Andy Moore reports.

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It's a postcard sized painting on a wooden panel that shows an elderly melancholy man with eyes cast downwards. Over the years, somebody has tried to restore it with some extra brush strokes and varnishing.

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In 1982, the leading authorities on Rembrandt's work examined it and declared it a fake. A later copy of a lost original.

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But in 2015, a new curator arrived at the Ashmolean and an Vanc and began to reexamine the work and became fascinated by the small panel painting, which is kept in our basement store and which I knew had been rejected as a genuine Rembrandt in the last 40 years in preparation of the Young Rembrandt exhibition, which has now reopened in Oxford. We had the panel examined by the world specialist and dendrochronology.

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She sent off a sample of wood for analysis, and that showed it came from the same tree that had been used as a panel for an authentic Rembrandt Andromeda chained to the rocks. The analysis suggested that at the very least, the painting came from the workshop of the master. And so head of a bearded man will be going on public display for Wednesday at the Mullin's Rembrandt exhibition. After that, there will be restoration and further examination to try to establish if it was in fact painted by one of the world's greatest artists, Andy Moore.

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Still to come on this podcast, we know well on his farm, on the hills of England's Lake District, a shepherd and his dogs are at work.

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We take a trip to the countryside and hear how politics is changing, how we farm and what we eat.

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India is the second most populous country in the world with the fifth largest economy and it's in freefall, the latest official government data shows the devastating impact that covid-19 has had on the Indian economy. GDP fell by almost 24 percent in the most recent quarter of this year. The strict lockdown and the collapse of global trade is at the heart of this problem because the economy rose slightly in the first quarter. India is not officially in recession yet. It's 40 years since GDP fell by two consecutive quarters in a row.

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I got more from our South Asia editor. Embarrassment at the region.

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It is the devastating news for many people in India because they were expecting something like 17 to 18 percent contraction in the last quarter. But this 24 percent, you can add any superlatives to that. It is the worst in decades. Now, what it means is that consumer spending, which is the main driver of the economy in many countries around the world, has dropped by 31 percent during this Lockton period. You have to understand, India is one of the strictest lockdown's in the world.

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In the late March, when the pandemic started and as a result, all this capital investments, manufacturing all fell. Millions of migrant laborers, they lost their jobs. Just to give you an example about crunching these figures, Maruti Suzuki is the biggest car maker in India. It sells about 160000 units every month. And in April, they did not sell a single unit.

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Well, what is New Delhi doing about this to turn the economy around? The government is in a very tight situation now.

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They have been announcing various schemes. They announced schemes about spending nearly 260 billion dollars, for example, giving more bank guarantees for businesses of making it easier for them to take loans. And also, we have to understand, India's got both formal and informal economy. And for the informal economy, they have to feed these migrant laborers. We are talking about more than a, you know, tens of millions of laborers to provide them free food grains. And much of this amount will go into feeding this people.

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But really, what it needs to start the economy is government need to spend on big infrastructure projects. And also the consumer spending has to start once again. I'll just give you an example. A friend of mine running a marriage community hard. Yes. No marriage bookings for the last five months and no bookings for the next five months as well, which means he can't afford to buy anything for his family or friends and all the related industries like decorator's cooks and also the ad agencies, they have not got any business.

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So it is up to the government to invest more and start this infrastructure projects to kick start the economy.

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And Barazan atherogenic Lebanon has a new prime minister, Mustafa Adeeb. He replaces Hassan Diyab, whose government resigned after the huge explosion in the port area of Beirut a month ago, which killed 190 people. He's a 48 year old former ambassador to Germany and has promised to implement immediate reforms. Our correspondent Paula Guaran reports from Beirut.

[00:20:06]

When the name of Lebanon's new prime minister emerged from behind closed doors, many here responded with who? Mustafa Adeeb, a relatively unknown diplomat, must now attempt to lead a deeply fractured nation at the edge of a political and economic abyss. In a televised speech, he referred to the challenges facing Lebanon if he has his removal possible at the be.

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However, tomorrow there is no time for words, promises and wishes, said Mr. Adeeb. It's time to work hard with everyone to heal our country and bring back hope because all Lebanese are extremely worried. One of his first acts was to visit the district of GMAC, still coated in glass and rubble after the explosion at Beirut port four weeks ago. The reception wasn't warm. Reports say one man shouted, Our children died. Others hurled plastic containers at his car and shouted revolution.

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Lebanese across the sectarian divide are weary of their political elites. Few seem to have hope that any new prime minister will deliver either on reform or the investigation into the blast all again.

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I asked a reporter in Beirut, Karin Taub, why Mr. Adeeb had been chosen.

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This is mainly because the prime minister in Lebanon is a position that is reserved to a Sunni. So that's why the final word was given to the Sunnis. And there is some sort of an understanding at the moment that everyone needs to show some kind of compromise and they need to come together and form a government. This is first because there are so many challenges in Lebanon and so many crises that they need to tackle, but. Also, because the international community and mainly the Western powers and mainly France has been putting a lot of pressure on the Lebanese leaders to show some seriousness in the reforms to form a new government and to tackle head on all the crises.

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And President Macron is in Beirut again today. Absolutely. And it is somehow not a mere coincidence that the prime minister has been appointed on the day that Macron visits Lebanon for the second time in less than a month. This has been seen as a gesture to what the French president and the Western community, that Lebanon is going to make some reforms. And the first message of the new prime minister was all in this direction. What he said is basically there is no time for statements and for talks.

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It's time for work. And the first task is going to be to form the government in record time. Is he going to do this? Is he going to be able to navigate through all the political rivalries in this country? Is the old establishment going to concede that this is time for serious reforms for this time to tackle problems that they have been unwilling to tackle for decades?

[00:23:19]

Tobei now to Sudan, where there's hope a new peace deal may end a conflict that has lasted almost two decades. The agreement between the government and the SRF alliance, which is made up of four rebel groups, could bring peace to areas like Darfur and Juba, which have been devastated by war. Our Africa editor, Mary Harper spoke to my colleague Razia Iqbal.

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The conflict in the western region of Sudan in Darfur began 17 years ago in 2003 when basically ethnic African groups rose up against what they saw as the more Arabic style domination and the government of the then president, the ousted president Omar al-Bashir, unleashed this ferocious campaign against them. And in fact, Mr. al-Bashir and a number of others were indicted for war crimes and crimes against humanity as a result of that conflict, which, even though it's reduced in scale, still continues to a degree.

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You still hear about quite frequent clashes and up to 300 in fact, 300000 people were killed in that conflict and more than two million displaced. And then you also have a slightly less low intensity conflict. Let's let's describe them as in parts of southern Sudan. So this peace deal is meant to encompass all of those conflicts under one umbrella.

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And there are there are those two groups that are not included in the deal. How significant is that?

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It is significant. I mean, one of the problems with the conflicts in Sudan is you get so many groups and splinter groups that even if you might sign a deal with some of them, there's always going to be others that break away and refuse to participate. So unless these two groups sign, it's not really going to be fully comprehensive peace agreement. And also, there's always the risk, as has happened in the past, that this peace deal will start to fray, to fall apart and collapse, because that has been the the repeated pattern of peace deals, especially to do with Darfur.

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And in that context, then you don't sound particularly hopeful that this this is going to be a lasting peace. Is that partly to do with the strength and the how rooted the central government is? That's part of the problem.

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But I don't want to sound too pessimistic. After all, Sudan now has got a new administration, a new transitional administration. It has undergone a revolution. So there is a new sort of political complexion to the country. But given that these grievances have not really been addressed, it's going to be hard for Sudan to fully reach peace any time soon, I would say.

[00:26:01]

Mary Harper, the U.K. government is determined to strike new free trade agreements as it prepares for its post Brexit future.

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But a prominent sheep farmer and author from the north west of the country argues any deal with the United States could be a disaster for British agriculture. James Ray Banks, who has developed a huge social media following after documenting his life as a shepherd, fears a deal could be the greatest act of vandalism to hit the British countryside in decades.

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Rory Caitlin Jones went to meet him in Cumbria way, way, way back. But no one on his farm on the hills of England's Lake District, a shepherd and his dogs are at work.

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James Ebanks made a name for himself, posting photos of his hardy flock of sheep on Twitter and Instagram.

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I'm first and foremost a shepherd, and I took my sheep really, really seriously.

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But social media fame started him on a literary career. His new book, English Pastoral, is part of a letter to his firm.

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Part manifesto for a greener, less intensive approach to agriculture with more emphasis on local produce.

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I think it's good to have food produced locally to us because we can see it. We can see it, we can judge it. We can comment on it, and we can have more influence over the way things are done.

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Where your land. Yes, that's right.

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He took me on a tour of his farm to show how he's practicing what he preaches.

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After years of focusing solely on sheep, he now also has a herd of cattle. He says too many farms have failed to diversify.

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And now we know that wasn't particularly good for nature and it hasn't been particularly good for our bank accounts in many ways. So we're going back to a mix of animals. All animals have different different effects on the land. So it's enabled us to get the the grass in the soil as healthy as we can. There was always something like wild cattle here. None of it's for fun just because it looks good. All of it is an attempt on our family farm to make the damn thing to the blood.

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And the secret is to cut down the input costs. And what we produce at the end of the day is a high value product. And not only that then requires you and everybody else to care about good food and to be willing to pay a little bit more for things produced in sustainable ways.

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A couple of pigs have also joined the Farm I farm.

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We're just trying to get back to the old model where there's a few pigs, there's a few cattle, there's the sheep. And then, yeah, I have a good diversified business model.

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The pigs are a hit with his son, Isaac, who's been taught to understand that they're not just pets.

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I ask you a difficult question, Isaac. Do you like bacon? Yes. And you know that these pigs will end up as bacon. Yes. This isn't just sort of nostalgia or a lifestyle choice. This is actually about putting back a farm to what it really can be to drive as much nature, as much biodiversity as we can.

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But James Banks thinks much of the damage done to the landscape comes from farmers following American intensive farming methods. His big fear is that a UK trade deal with the United States could see that process accelerated.

[00:29:11]

We didn't go quite as far as the American Midwest. You want to go and see what this looks like? Go there and have a look. I in the book, I talk about going to have a look at it. It's not something we should be thinking of copying. And yet if we sign on the dotted line of this American free trade deal, which is being proposed, we're going to put all of these damaging systems into hyperdrive. We're going to we're going to do the greatest act of vandalism against the British countryside has been for many, many decades.

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I literally think it's the worst thing that could happen to the English countryside. Mostly, however, this literary shepherd is hopeful about the farming future. He's followed the advice of environmentalists planting trees, setting aside what was grazing pasture for wildflowers, and his land is healing itself.

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It's an amazing time to be a farmer. We can just take these messages from the environmentalists on the chain. We can listen very carefully to the things they know that we don't, and we can rise to lots of these challenges. I just think we need the British public to believe in us and backers and supporters. No, just telling us that if we give it a chance, it comes about really quickly. And I find that really exciting. It doesn't mean I stop being a farmer, but it means I can stop being the bad guy.

[00:30:15]

To make that report by Rory Catlin Jones. And that's all from us for now. But there will be an updated version of the Global News podcast a little bit later. If you want to comment on this edition or the topics covered in it, you can send us an email. The address is Global Podcast. All one word at BBC Dutko UK. I'm Jolina. And until next time, goodbye.