Hello, this is the global news podcast from the BBC World Service with reports and analysis from across the world. The latest news, seven days a week. BBC World Service podcasts are supported by advertising. This is the Global News podcast from the BBC World Service to that jaleo.
And in the early hours of Tuesday, the 25th of August, these are our main stories. The Republican National Convention formally nominates Donald Trump as its candidate in November's presidential election. The German Chancellor, Angela Merkel, calls on Russia to conduct a full investigation into what doctors say was the poisoning of President Putin's arch critic, Alexei Navalny. Scientists in Hong Kong report the first confirmed case of covid-19 reinfection. Also in this podcast, we were digging strips along the square.
When I remove the soil with a hole, I saw something like I want to declare them realize they might be called.
An Israeli teenager discovers gold coins buried for more than a thousand years. It's a crucial week for President Trump trailing in the polls and under pressure over his handling of the pandemic, he's hoping to get a boost from the Republican National Convention, which kicked off on Monday. He was formally nominated as his party's candidate to contest November's election.
But instead of the extravaganza he'd once expected, he had to address a crowd of just several hundred at the scaled down event in North Carolina.
Mr. Trump told them that the poll was the most important in the history of the country. He'll appear at the convention every night until he delivers his acceptance speech on Thursday. Our North America editor Jon Sopel reports. Delegates, welcome to the 20 20 Republican National Convention in Charlotte, North Carolina, a convention of sorts got underway.
But this isn't the convention Donald Trump had wanted. He'd insisted until very recently it would be in person, in a large arena and packed to the rafters with cheering delegates and balloons and confetti falling from the ceiling. But the upsurge in coronavirus cases put paid to that. And that, in a sense, is the great challenge for this convention. How much do you make it about the administration's response to covid where Donald Trump's poll ratings are very poor? And how much do you make it about the economy?
That's an area where he enjoys a considerable lead over his rival, Joe Biden. But with unemployment at record highs because of the coronavirus shutdown, this is not the easy sell it might have been. The president arrived in Charlotte for a brief visit to thank delegates who've confirmed him as the Republican candidate.
We have to win. This is the most important election in the history of our country. This is the most, you know, for for a long period of time, I would say. Well, 2016, how special was that evening?
Was that one of the that was one of the greatest, unlike normal conventions where the candidate makes only a cameo appearance until the final night's speech, the president has decided that he should play a big part on each of the four evenings it will culminate in him making his acceptance speech from the White House on Thursday night, a controversial choice as it's government property and not meant to be used for party political purposes. Recent polls have suggested that Mr Trump is lagging well behind his Democratic rival.
What does success this week look like? Closing the gap?
Jon Sopel. Meanwhile, in New York, the state's attorney general has taken legal action to force the Trump organization to comply with its investigation into the company's financial dealings. Letitia James began looking into President Trump and his company last year for possible bank and insurance fraud after public testimony to Congress by his former lawyer, Michael Cohen. Mr. Trump has denounced the investigation as politically motivated.
Nada Taufiq reports.
The attorney general wants a judge to order the president's son, Eric Trump, to testify under oath as executive vice president of the company. Letitia James argues he is intimately involved in one or more projects under review and responsible for thousands of documents wrongly withheld. He was scheduled for an interview last month but abruptly canceled and now refuses to cooperate, according to the office of the attorney general. In a statement, it said, For months, the Trump organization has stalled and instructed witnesses to refuse to answer questions in order to shield evidence.
Nada Taufiq in New York. The German chancellor, Angela Merkel, has called on Russia to investigate the suspected poisoning of the Russian opposition leader, Alexei Navalny, after the German doctors treating him said they'd found indications of a toxic substance in his body.
Miss Merkel's spokesman, Steffen Seibert, spoke to reporters political agenda of the fact that the suspicion is not that Mr. Navalny seriously poisoned himself, but that someone seriously poisoned Mr. Navalny, which unfortunately there are some examples of in recent Russian history. So the world takes this suspicion very seriously.
Mr. Navalny, a long time critic of Russia's President Vladimir Putin, collapsed on a plane last week after drinking tea. Initially, Russian doctors refused to allow him to be flown to Germany despite his family's appeals. But he eventually arrived in Berlin on Saturday, where he remains in a coma. Our correspondent in the city, Jenny Hill, told me more about what doctors think may have poisoned him.
They believe it may belong to a group of what he described as Codan asterisk in inhibiters. And they've not given us very much detail. But they say there may be long term consequences for his nervous system. So we can, I think, safely assume that this particular substance, whatever it was, may well have been targeted at his nervous system. And Mr Navalny himself is still in a coma. And the doctors say he's in a serious condition, but that his condition isn't life threatening, although they say at this stage they can't be certain that, as I say, he'll make a full recovery.
Do we know how they're treating him?
Well, now they've been able to identify that the kind of substance that that appears to have been administered. And they say they are giving him the antidote, atropine. So they are now able to treat him is a really strange scenario. You know, you go past the city center hospital. Of course, there are patients outside as you get outside any kind of hospital. There's also policemen outside. And we're told there are policemen inside, too. And it is a very, very sensitive situation, of course, politically, and it's probably.
Worth bearing in mind, too, that before the doctors released the statement, they said that they've been talking to Mr. Mani's wife, who's been with him all along, and they say they've released a statement with her agreement because they believe it's in Mr. Navales interest. The world, in effect, knows what's happened to him.
And that does appear to be a pattern here is increasingly common for critics of Vladimir Putin to fall mysteriously ill or die. Where does this leave relations between Russia and the West?
Well, it further ratchets up the tensions. You mentioned sort of previous examples. Two years ago, a Russian dissident was treated with suspected poisoning in the very same hospital here in Berlin last summer. A Chechen man, a dissident, an opposition to the Russian establishment, was shot dead in broad daylight in a Berlin park. And the German authorities who investigated said as far as they were concerned, this was a state sponsored assassination. Jenny Hill in Berlin.
Qatar has a population of more than two and a half million, of which the vast majority, some two million, are migrant workers.
Many of them are involved in building the stadiums, transportation and hotels for the upcoming 2022 FIFA World Cup. The campaign group Human Rights Watch spoke to nearly 100 migrants working for various employers and companies between January 2019 and May of this year. They found that dozens had complained about their wages being delayed, not paid in full or not at all, and some were even left struggling to buy food.
My colleague Esther Williams spoke to Ruffner Begum, a senior women's rights researcher at Human Rights Watch.
So it includes everything from coming to the country believing that you can be paid a certain wage and fined and that your employees is paying you much less than what you were promised other workers who have faced delayed, deducted or unpaid wages altogether. So sometimes you have delayed wages while employers are not paying for a month or two months or even months on end, which then becomes essentially unpaid wages. And you also have deducted wages where employees are actually deducting on a number of reasons or not telling them the reason at all.
And there's also overtime abuse. So they're forcing them to do conduct overtime hours, but they're not paying them for that either.
You've been documenting these incidents. What sort of pressure can you bring to bear to get them to change their practices?
Well, the Qatari authorities have already been making some steps and some reforms. Now it's not enough. So first off, one of the big things that they need to be doing is abolishing the kafala system. A kafala is the sponsorship system essentially means that when a worker comes to update, they are their visa is tied to their employer who can decide whether or not they can leave or change jobs with their consent. Now, that means that when workers find themselves facing delayed wages month after month, not getting the wage on time, they simply cannot leave their employer and go work for a different employer.
And so they're trapped in those situations. If you can, we can dismantle that and take away that level of control. Workers will be more empowered to be able to leave and change employees and seek justice for those wage abuses. The second issue is the incredible amount of exorbitant recruitment fees that workers continue to pay in order to come to Qatar in the first place for such job opportunities. And this is illegal. Qatar already has made it illegal for workers to be paying recruitment fees.
And yet it's happening as a practice, not only in the situation of, say, in Kenya or Uganda, where local agents are charging workers fees. But actually, this is part of an endemic process in which right from the very top, they're expecting their recruiting agents in order to pay for them. Those recruiting agents are passing it off to local agents in Kenya or Uganda to pay for them. And those agents are then passing off to the workers who are made to pay for them.
Those workers then turn up to the country already in debt.
Some people would argue that Human Rights Watch should be focusing its firepower on countries in Africa who've got such horrendous economic situations where their people are forced to leave in the first place and go seek these employees elsewhere, where you argue that the conditions aren't exactly the best.
When the last five to 10 years, we've actually seen an increase of recruiters from the Gulf, including Qatar, turning to African countries for workers. Now, the reason for why that's happening is because while the large number of workers are still coming from South Asia, they're still looking to find workers from countries that where the governments are not aware of what the issues are or they may not even be aware that workers are being recruited from their own countries. This is changing over the last however many years governments are trying to grapple with this.
And while it is absolutely true, governments in Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia should be doing more to ensure that there are job of. Changes in their own home country so workers are not forced to migrate, the real issue still comes down to the fact that whoever decides to come to Qatar or the Gulf and wants to work should be able to work and earn that wage without facing wage abuse.
Roth now begins speaking to the BBC's Essel Williams. Police in Brazil have charged a member of Congress flotilla's dos Santos de Souza with ordering the killing of her husband, Pasto. Anderson DoCoMo was gunned down on the doorstep of their home in what she told the police at the time was a robbery. Alex Ritson reports.
Pastor DoCoMo died in a hail of 30 bullets in June of 2009. But according to prosecutors, it was not his only brush with death. Police say he'd made several visits to hospital complaining of diarrhea, vomiting and sweating and that they believe those visits were caused by someone putting arsenic in his food while Flourless de Souza has been charged with ordering his killing. There is currently no warrant for her arrest due to parliamentary immunity from prosecution. However, 11 other members of Mr.
Sousa's family have been taken into custody on suspicion of also being involved. Alex Ritson.
Still to come, the Pakistani teenager who played dead to escape a Taliban attack six years ago.
My friends being killed, of course, in front of my eyes. And that's one of the pictures that I will never be able to forget.
Now, he's been accepted to study at Oxford University. Scientists in Hong Kong say they've documented the first confirmed case of reinfection with a coronavirus, which suggests that some people may lose their immunity to covid-19 within only a few months after recovering from it.
A 33 year old man in Hong Kong was infected in April and tested positive again this month following a trip to Spain. Here's our health correspondent Richard Galpin.
Researchers at the University of Hong Kong found that the man became reinfected with the virus four and a half months after originally contracting the disease using genome sequencing. They also established that the second episode of covid-19 was, as they put it, clearly different from the first. It was not just a re-emergence of the original infection. This potentially has serious implications. It could mean that at least some people will not have long lasting immunity from antibodies developed in response to contracting the virus, and that could undermine the ability of a vaccine to protect the population.
But Dr Maria Van Kerckhove from the World Health Organization says other scientists following coronavirus patients have come to a different conclusion.
There are a number of studies underway following the same individuals over time. These are called longitudinal studies from the longitudinal studies that are underway. Not all of them are published yet. We do see a strong antibody response that stays, that stays at that same level.
The World Health Organization is warning against rushing to judgment, saying much more details needed before any firm conclusions on reinfection can be made.
Richard Galpin. Well, throughout the pandemic, serious concerns have been raised about the danger posed by misinformation about coronavirus on social media.
Now, a taxi driver from the US state of Florida who didn't follow health advice after believing covid-19 was a hoax has lost his wife to the disease. Our reporter Henry Bello told me more.
You this is a really sad story about the human cost of disinformation and conspiracy theories about the coronavirus. And anyone who has access to social media websites from Facebook or Twitter, they can vouch that there is a lot of this information circulating online. Now, the taxi driver that you referred to there is a man called Brian Lee Hitchins, and he was, by his own admission, a self-described covid-19 sceptic. He believed many of these conspiracy theories, including that the virus was somehow spread or caused by a five G telecommunication networks.
And because of these theories, he ignored almost all of the public health advice about social distancing, about wearing masks and washing hands. He explained his thinking back in May.
I thought maybe the government was trying something and it was kind of like they threw it out there to kind of distract us.
It was like, oh, all these masks and gloves. And I thought, you know, it looked like just a hysteria.
Now, you might have heard in the background of that clip a steady beep. Now, that's the sound of a ventilator in a hospital ward, because at the time of the recording, he was actually in hospital because he didn't know what all this advice and he himself contracted covid-19, along with his wife, Erin, and now he survived. But his wife spent months battling this disease and sadly, she's now died from problems linked to covid-19. So what's Brian's message to people who believe in these kind of theories?
Well, in short, his message is that this virus is real, that people should be placing their faith in medical professionals. They should be listening to them and not the kind of people who are spreading this misinformation online. And in one of these posts before his wife died. It is quite heartbreaking, actually.
He says that if it was he that passed on this virus to his wife, he knew that she would forgive him, that God would forgive him, but he wasn't so sure that other people would forgive him. Of course, Janet, the other aspect to this story is just how prevalent misinformation about the virus is. Online companies like Facebook have taken some efforts to try and tackle the amount of misinformation, but critics argue that they need to do a lot more.
And this story of Brian Hutchens and his wife, Erin, shows that there is a real human cost to this type of misinformation.
Henry Bellow, one of America's most prominent civil rights leaders, has told the BBC that he wants a national ban on chokeholds used by police that have led to the death of black people like George Floyd.
Reverend Al Sharpton also said he was not surprised by President Trump calling Black Lives Matter a symbol of hate. He spoke to our US correspondent, Larry Medawar in New York ahead of a march this Friday marking the fifty seventh anniversary of Martin Luther King's march on Washington.
What has changed in the light of George Floyd is that you're seeing the whole ground. A swell of support grow when I see rallies now and marches now with as many whites, blacks. It shows me there's something different going on.
So three months after the death of George Floyd and which led to this national movement around raising awareness and police brutality, what do you think has changed in America? I think it has set a climate for national legislation. The House of Representatives has already passed the George Floyd Policing Justice, that now we need the Senate, which is one of the reasons for the march on August 28.
What sort of national legislation do you need to avoid another George Floyd? I think you need legislation that says it's a felony to compress someone and cause their death, which is a chokehold on on the neck. You need legislation, federal legislation to say that when a policeman is accused of a crime, his record is transparent to see if he's had complaints before. And you need to take away the immunity where they cannot be personally sued.
President Donald Trump has called Black Lives Matter a symbol of hate.
He has a lot of audacity, calling any movement a symbol of hate, but is not surprising, he said. It was find people on both sides with neo-Nazis marched in Charlottesville. I would recommend people understand that everything Donald Trump says is for Donald Trump. He and the truth made an agreement a long time ago. If you don't bother me, I won't bother you.
Kamala Harris is a historic pick for vice president. And President Trump has already kind of hinted at these Baathism comments about whether she qualifies to run because whether or not she qualifies as an American citizen.
Donald Trump used birther wisdom to enter politics. And I used to see Trump. I marched on Trump against the Central Park five Central Park five case another. But then he tried to be cordial in a boxing matches, which means he came to National Action Network convention to it. But we fell out totally on Birtwhistle when he said Barack Obama was not a real American. Now he's using it with Kamala Harris. It is interesting. He only raises the question of what is a black person he attacks everybody, calls them names, but he never questions a white birth rate.
Blacks birthrights. A question. Why? Because it's sending a racist signal that they are not one of us. They're not even really an American. What do you hope to achieve with this March?
Fifty seven years after the original march on Washington, I hope we achieve by bringing back global attention to the George Floyd case and other cases that are begging for legislation. And second, to say that Dr. King came to the same spot fifty seven years ago talking about the abuses of segregation and denial of the right to vote. We come 47 years later saying we have achieved a lot of we came went for, but we still have a distance to go and policing and protecting the right to vote.
So I want to give the message with Dr. King's son, Martin Luther King Jr. and with other civil rights groups and the families that we are still believers in the dream. And the dream has not been realized. And we come on that day to that place to make that statement.
The Reverend Al Sharpton, three senior executives at the mining giant Rio Tinto, have paid a price for the company's destruction of ancient Aboriginal caves in Western Australia.
The caves themselves, among the oldest historical sites in Australia may have been priceless, but the company has put a figure on what it called a failure to respect local communities and their heritage.
The executives will lose a total of around five million dollars in bonuses, but all three will remain in their roles. My colleague James Kim spoke to Patrick O'Leary, who's the director of Country Needs People, an organisation that works with Aboriginal groups to manage land.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have many sacred sites that are imbued right throughout the landscape. This site in particular is of incredible significance, not only to the people that are traditional owners of those caves, but really as a record of human history.
For the last forty six thousand years, there's a demonstrated direct link between some artefacts found in those caves. And the people that are living there today are incredibly important, not only for the traditional owners, but really for the entire global story of human development on Earth.
So when they were destroyed, how would you describe the feeling of them working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in various places around Australia for many, many years? And unfortunately, there has been a litany of impacts and destruction of sacred sites.
But outside this particular. Incident has struck a very significant note right across the country. So how does this apology and the decision to dock a few million dollars in bonuses from senior executives at Rio Tinto gone down?
People are looking at this as a gesture, perhaps, but not something that they want to see in terms of significant change. I think people are looking for a lot more. The real mark of the response will be not so much from within the companies, but in the regulatory system and the industry's response to the strengthening of regulation both at the state and the federal level in Australia. It's a weak, feeble regulatory system, a system that's really stacked heavily against Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people that is at fault here.
Many people would argue that over the last 40 years, there's been significant industry influence on the design of those regulatory systems. We have weak systems in Australia for protecting cultural heritage, and that is fundamentally the problem. The problem lies with government and perhaps the ecosystem which allows those industry desires around the weakness or strength of the system to predominate.
How do you change that? There are many Aboriginal native title representative organisations coming together to really say that they've had enough of this.
And I think it will be that public dialogue in the end. It'll be the discussion in the public domain, which is a product of any democracy, will determine how this settles in the end, because certainly if it goes behind closed doors and if it becomes simply a negotiation between isolated traditional owner groups and very, very powerful companies in the industry, and it goes out of that public discussion, I think we won't see a very successful conclusion. But one would imagine that if the Aboriginal community continues to apply pressure, then there may be a result.
Patrick O'Leary speaking to James Coomaraswamy, a teenager from Pakistan who pretended he was dead to escape a Taliban attack on his school in 2014, in which dozens of pupils were massacred, has won a place to one of the world's most prestigious universities, Oxford in England. Ahmed Nawaz, who lost his brother in the atrocity, was brought to Britain for treatment. Our correspondent Shabnam Mahmood went to meet him in the English city of Birmingham.
That was a horrible day, I will never be able to forget the things that happened on that day, December 2014, over 130 children and their teachers died in an attack by the Taliban on a school in Peshawar in Pakistan.
My friends being killed, of course, in front of my eyes. And that's one of the pictures that I will never be able to forget.
Ahmed Nawaz, who also lost his younger brother in the massacre, was shot in the arm.
It shattered the bone at that time. And I had to go through 11 surgeries.
My dog or my dog, so severe were his injuries. He was flown to a Birmingham hospital which specializes in trauma surgery. I met him shortly after his operation.
He explained how he played dead to stay alive and keep quiet and assure myself that to them, because the blood was so much and my shirt was fully red and also all fully red, therefore they think that he's dead.
Since then, Ahmed has almost made a full recovery and together with his family, he's made the UK his home. He says the attack has made him stronger and more determined to do well after that attack.
I had been really determined to get the best education possible because that was the way that I was going to defeat those extremists who try to attack us. And since that attack, I've been working extremely hard.
And he's now secured a place at Oxford University to study philosophy.
I feel like this is a success not only for myself, but also all the people who got shot in that attack. So I started going to schools to speak to the students who are being who are at risk of being radicalized. I would also love to help people through my own organisation that I'm trying to set up now, which will also try to empower young people in order to eradicate this problem of extremism from the world. I think my survival was a miracle in a sense, and now I am just trying my best to make sure that I can do something.
And the second chance that I've been given Ahmed namaz speaking to Shabana Mahmood, archaeologists working on a in central Israel have found hundreds of gold coins in a clay jar that have been buried for more than a thousand years. Experts say the rare find will help shed light on a little known period in the area's past with more his Alan Johnston.
The discovery was made by a teenage volunteer at the Dig.
I found a local thought you were digging strips around the square. When I removed the soil with a hole, I saw something a looked like I want to clear them, but realised they might be calling. I looked down first. I found about three of them and when I picked them up, I saw some more underneath.
Eventually it became clear that 425 coins had been buried in a jar. They dated back to the era of the Abbasid caliphates, which ruled the region from Persia to North Africa for centuries in among the hoard. There was even a coin from the neighbouring Byzantine Empire, which was a rival to the caliphate at the time when they were buried, the gold dinars would have been worth a small fortune, enough to buy a luxury home in a wealthy city who hid the cache of coins and why they never came back to recover.
It remains a mystery. Alan Johnston.
And that's all from us for now. But there will be an updated version of the Global News podcast later if you want to comment on this podcast. The topics covered in it, you can send us an email. The address is Global Podcast at BBC Doko UK. I'm John Angelil. Until next time. Goodbye.