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Ever wondered why there are two ways to spell doughnut's or why some people think you can find water underground just by wandering around with a stick? Believe it or not, this is stuff you should know. You know the podcast with over a billion listeners. It's now for your eyes so you can read it. Stuff you should know. An incomplete compendium of mostly interesting things covers everything from the origin of the Murphy bed to why people get lost, become the most interesting person you know.

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Now at stuff you should know dotcom or wherever books are sold.

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News with a new perspective, news with a black perspective. The Black Information Network is the first all news on. Network core and by the black community, get the podcast and get the biggest news and business stories delivered to you every morning. Subscribe to the Black Information Network daily and wake up with the latest from the Black Information Network. Loaded and ready to go. When you listen to the Black Information Network daily on the talk radio web, Apple podcast, wherever you get your podcasts.

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Welcome to How the Citizen with Baratunde, a show where we reimagine the word citizen as a verb and remind ourselves how to wield our collective power.

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I'm Baratunde. In the US, we have elected a new president, Joe Biden, and a new vice president, Kamala Harris, I'm still riding the emotions of it all. I didn't realize how much tension I have been holding for four years until that announcement came and I just cried with relief. I'm talking ugly, ugly, crying, just wailing tears intermittently throughout Saturday, not because of all the country's problems are solved far from that, but because now I believe we have a fighting chance to build a democracy worthy of us all, a democracy that works for us all.

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Something we've been striving to achieve for this country's entire history never quite made it. Plus, it was nice to see people flooding the streets, not to protest unjust police, but to celebrate the exercise of people power. We set records. Even those who voted differently from us, we showed up and we used our power.

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Well done, citizens. As of this recording, with some vote counting still happening, but not enough to change the outcome, a record. Seventy four million people voted for Joe Biden for president. It's the most votes any US presidential candidate has ever received. The second most votes ever received went to Donald Trump. In this same election. So we are a nation decided and we are a nation divided, the 70 million votes for Trump aren't just numbers, they're people, people we work with, live with and love.

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How do we do that, how do they do that, how do we citizen with people who think so differently from us? These aren't just questions for Biden voters, but for Trump voters and nonvoters, too, we're all in the same country together. I've got just the person to help us with that in this our 16th and final episode of season one. What do you mean you're going to stop? There's an episode. There's a season, huh?

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Yeah, that's right.

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We're wrapping this thing. More on the future of this show on the other side of the interview. That's what we call a teaser. Meanwhile, in this episode, we are taking it back to the beginning and our very first episode, Valerie Carr reminded us of the power of revolutionary love in how we citizen. And she helped us see that building relationships with others is a key part of what it means to citizen. In this episode, I spoke with one of the world's most insightful voices on modern relationships.

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She's a psychotherapist and bestselling author of two books, Mating in Captivity and the State of Affairs. Her TED talks have garnered over 30 million views and counting, and she executive producers and hosts two of her own podcasts. How's work and where should we begin? She likes putting questions in the titles of her podcast, and I'd like to put putting questions to her in our podcast. Yeah, we brought in a relationship therapist, a certified relationship therapist to help us close out this season as we try to build and heal relationships with the people in our country and in our lives who made very different choices during this election.

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I can tell you right up, this is one of those episodes you got to listen to the whole thing and you're probably going to want to listen a few times. Here is my conversation with their Perreault. One of our pillars of what it means to citizen is, you know, showing up and participating and being and investing in relationships because we don't sit isn't alone and includes being in relationship with ourselves, but also with others. Your work is there is anchored in the idea of relationships.

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And I'd love to know your take on what does it practically mean for someone to invest in a relationship? What does it mean for us to invest in relationships with people around us?

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You know, traditionally there was a way that looked at societies and divided them between task oriented societies and relationship oriented societies. Task oriented often meant the priorities were given to time as a finite unit, to achievement, to accomplishment, to what can be measured, to what can be quantified and so forth, and relationships where basically everything having to do with loyalty, legacy, harmony, discord, stuff that is really qualitative rather than quantitative. Maybe I should have started with that very simple sentence.

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The quality of your life is determined by the quality of your relationships, and this is true both at home and at work. So no matter what you do at some point. You will ask yourself at the last moment, did I love and was I loved? That will mean that you had invested in your relationships, no matter what else you've done, some people call it the difference between a resume and a eulogy. We often hear and we have in the show we promote the idea of investing in a relationship, of putting a relationship first.

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Yeah. Of giving to the relationship. What does that mean, practically speaking? What does that look?

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You know, let me put it like this growing up. This is for everybody here. What messages did you receive about relationships with Central in your family life and in your culture, or were they more peripheral? And if they were central, what were the messages that accompanied it as it you can trust people. People are there to help you. You belong to a group. Your needs just not just your own, your achievements, not just your own.

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You are part of a larger network of connections or where you taught more, rely on your own two feet. Nobody will ever tell you what to do as best as you can tell yourself. Self-reliance and autonomy. One set of models about relationships or loyalty and interdependence. Another set of messages about. And everybody here will pretty much be able to know what was the emphasis of the messages not always spoken by your parents like that. Sometimes, just by the sheer circumstances of your life, you had to learn autonomy and self-reliance versus interdependence.

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But to me, this distinction about how we frame relationships and therefore how we invest in them, this is a very useful thing.

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I'm hearing that if I jump immediately to national characterization and western eastern US, other parts of the world in terms of the individual focus, and you only have yourself to rely on Protestantism. Yeah, there you go. So there's the origin. It's a combination of capitalism and Protestantism. You know, this notion that you are at the center, it's an eye versus a we do. I conceive of myself as an eye that reaches out to me or do I conceive of myself as part of a way in which I try to develop?

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And I.

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Yeah, and it's not either or there's a relationship between those two. There's a relation.

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And many of us have lived in both cultures. Many of us have observed both systems, both the values attached to many people. Today, the world has grown up in one place and move to another, you know, inside the US as well. So we inhabit sometimes more than one value system when it comes to relationships. Give you a great example. When I came to the US and I was working a lot with mixed marriages, interracial intercultural interreligious marriages, and many times a person was struggling between their ideology of love, which was free choice enterprise and their loyalty to the family, to the religion, to the culture, to the larger forces.

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And people would say, you should do what's right for you. And I knew that that was a very particular frame, in contrast with people who lived with the notion that what's right for you never exists separately from how it affects others. You know, so they feel terribly guilty about being selfish, about doing what's right and other people, you can't let other people dictate to you. Well, this is a major division cross culturally. This is a division inside this country, inside families and inside ourselves.

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It's a perfect example.

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I want to talk about division. We've seen and experienced an extraordinary amount of political division in the United States of late, especially over the past four years. And we've seen it show up, seep into our most cherished relationships, our family relationships, our intimate relationships. What have you seen in your own practice, maybe amongst your colleagues, about how our political divisions are showing up in our relationships and how the politics has become more personal?

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One of the basic ways that you experience divisions in relationships is when there is a loss of a shared sense of reality. This is what you see in couples, in families all the time when there is no shared will affects an idea that others wrote this week that we've ceased to be a country in disagreement and we are a country of mutual disgust. A deep division is often marked by content. Content is often the killer. In relationships. You can have criticism, you can have defensiveness, you can have stonewalling.

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You can have gaslighting even. But contempt actually. Guess that goes off and weakens. And contempt is kind of the you've lost the basic respect for the other person and for their humanity. That is part of what we have. And it's happening inside families as much as it's happening in the society. In the broader sense, people live with a sense of betrayal and betrayal generally represents the shattering of our shared assumptions. I thought we were in this together.

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I thought you had my back to, you know, so there is that. And to me, you know, it's an interesting thing to see on a macro level that which you often see when you work as a couples therapist, which I do when you work with very polarized couples in which what else goes into division in a couple, I tend to think of myself as a rainbow. I think you are black and white. I think of myself as complex.

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I see you as one dimensional. I think that if I behave poorly, it's because there are circumstances. If you behave poorly, it's characterological. That is part of the polarization. I don't really care to listen to you because I experience everything you see as a threat and I'm in fight flight mode. And I think that if we did it your way, you know, it would be a disaster. You are willing to destroy everything which we can planet do you live on.

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How can you even think like this? And it's mutual. You say the same thing to me with those words or other words. So that's what happens in a polarized populist. You have instant escalation and a fundamental belief that the facts actually matter. But at some point the feelings and the form supersede the content. If we start to talk with dismissal, it doesn't matter if we're talking about the economy or about Greenpeace in the in Japan. The form precedes the content of what I think is that you have no idea what you're talking about.

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We can talk about anything. I would still think that you have no idea what you're talking about. If you think I'm even if you think I don't care if you think I'm going to bring your demise, it doesn't matter the subject matter, you will have the filter because we see what we expect to see. In your experience with these couples, what's the threshold for arriving at a place of contempt and dismissal? How does that escalation happen? How do you know you're past that point if I fundamentally distrust you?

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And I think that you're just out for yourself, that you don't take my well-being into account. I see you as a potential danger. That's part of why I go to fight flight. You are a threat to me. You are a threat to me because you're black. You're a threat to me because you're a man. You're a threat to me because you're rich, because you're poor, or because you're coming to take my job or because you are bringing indecency into our society or because you're bringing nationalism and populism into our society and political arena.

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It has other names than in a marriage. But basically you are a danger when you have danger. The first thing I do is I defend. And if I can I attack a counterattack. I blame blame defense, blame defense. And I deflect in a polarized relationship. I never think I have the responsibility for anything. It's you who make me do what I do, which I wouldn't do if you were different and didn't make me. And you can you can translate it into politics.

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I am the way I am because of you. If you hadn't done this, I wouldn't be. So it's what we call hostile dependence. I need you to change. But since you don't, I'm angry at you. And the more I'm angry at you, of course, the less you're going to do and the less you're going to do and the more I'm going to need you to do in order for anything to change, which you're not doing.

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So I get enraged.

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So that's a vicious cycle. That's an understatement.

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But yes, it's a negative reinforcement.

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It's a yes, it's a complete negative feedback loop. It's it's the route of escalation. And when you see it on a national level, it's basically when you watch Trump and Pelosi, that's what what's so clearly there have been some efforts that you've been a part of that you've seen that the human species has been through in our relationships before to also repair to. Return from a state of mutual distrust and contempt to one of more trust and more partnership rather than threat.

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What does that road look like, the return to mutual respect and humanity?

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You know, I will respond to you on two levels. One is in my practice as a therapist, and then one is really in other things that I have been aware of, not always fully involved with. But I have looked at South Africa. I have looked at the groups that come together as mothers or fathers of Israeli and Palestinian children, people who could hate each other. For life. And who decides that they have no choice? They won't be able to live well and sleep well unless they find some kind of dialogue with those other people and they come together as mothers and fathers who lost their children.

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And that supersedes everything about this most intractable political conflict.

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So take me through the first part that as a therapist, what have you seen? So as a therapist, you know, the first thing I say is if you continue to repeat the same thing. The more you say what you say, the more your partner is going to say the exact thing that you don't want them to say. Meaning we have a knack of drawing from the other side, the very thing which we actually don't want. If you continue to say things are really good, things are better than ever, your partner is going to answer, they're awful.

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So if you want to hear something else, maybe you change what you've been saying. So that doesn't mean you say things are awful. That means you say obviously you have a different experience. Let me listen very hard, very hard for us to listen to stuff that is fundamentally the opposite of how we see it. But that's the exercise. Then you step out of the kind of calcification of positions, you know, then you really start to pay attention of how you treat the other one is one dimensional and how you think that you are much more layered and nuanced and complex.

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So that's a big one. Then you find some common ground. The common ground at this moment is that people feel deeply unsettled and stressed out and exhausted. Well, let's start with that. Why we are stressed out. We may say it's your fault and the other one says it's your fault, like in a relationship. But the fact is, none of us are sleeping that well for the moment. You know, then you go and you check your perception gap, this notion that people are often having a relationship where they think that the other person is completely on the other side, like there's absolutely nothing we see eye to eye here.

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And yet both of you want good for your child. One of you says we need to punish him. The other one says we should be so harsh on him. You are locked on this one. But the one thing we know is that both of you feel at a loss and both of you would do anything to get your child to stop using drugs, for example, is a classic, you know, and people have divorced over people. Now, the interesting thing is the only way you can only focus on the punishment is because you've got someone here who is actually holding the value of the kindness or empathy, if you want.

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And the only way that you can only talk about the empathy is because you've got someone here who is talking about the limits. And you actually need each other because basically your kid needs both. So instead of just thinking you're right, how about you try to be wise? It's better to be wise than right.

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Yeah, there's a phrase that I started saying to people in some of my own work, which is, no, do you want to be right or do you want to be effective?

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Yeah. And the feeling of righteousness is powerful, but its impact is pretty limited in terms of the outcomes you want.

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There's another podcast you might enjoy that offers big ideas and surprising stories. It's called PIN Drop from Ted Journey across the globe with filmmaker Saleem Moala in search of the most imaginative ideas from each place. This season, you'll learn how musicians are trying to save an indigenous language in Lima. What happens to the tourism paradise? Rapanui, a.k.a. Easter Island, when people stop showing up and explore what it means to start a black utopia? Looking back at where it's been tackled in North Carolina before, check out Pendrell.

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Wherever you listen, you're going to come into a new season of joy and fulfillment like you've never seen. Hi, I'm Joel Osteen. I have a daily podcast where I talk about overcoming obstacles, accomplishing dreams and becoming all you were created to be. You were made for more. You have new levels in you. There are seeds of greatness waiting to spring forward. You can't think negative thoughts and live a positive life. And on my daily podcast, I'll help you get your mind going in the right direction.

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You may have had some disappointments in the past, but this is a new day. Chains that have held you back are being broken. Doors are going to open that you never dreamed would open. Now do you apart. Keep feeding your hopes, feeding your dreams. Don't use your energy to feed your history. Use your energy to feed your destiny. It's inspiring, uplifting and encouraging. I think you'll like. Listen to the Joel Osteen podcast on the island radio ad on Apple podcasts wherever you get your podcasts.

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There is a requirement in the steps that you've outlined to slow down and to want to do it and to want it.

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Yes. And to not say you first, why should I? You have done nothing. Why should I be nice? You know, that's part of the Diggnation, too, right? This is a very critical moment.

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So, yeah, I don't want to go there because in the United States, we've had years of. Attempts at outreach, at reconciliation, at deep empathy after twenty sixteen, it felt to me like The New York Times devoted a whole new beat to understanding the quote unquote, white working class man in America. And I see all of this effort at recognition, at desolation, at every complex, defying the other into a human. I see it coming heavily from the side of liberals and progressives who feel some shame, some guilt, some compassion.

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We must have gotten something wrong about the country we're living in. So let's go to western Pennsylvania and find a coal miner to talk to and understand his plight. And I've searched and I'm not saying it's exhaustive, but I have very few examples of that coming from the right into the political spectrum. I haven't seen the humility demonstrated there to say maybe we don't understand the country we're in. Maybe we should go to Brooklyn and understand and have a latte with some hipster and see what's really on their mind or black person in Alabama and see what's really on her mind.

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One, you can tell me if my characterization is off. If you see something different, I'm happy to be wrong, truly. But beyond that, when one side feels like they're putting all the work in and the other side is it, how do you move out of that sense and that possible reality? So it's very interesting because this could be a complete description inside a couple where one person says, I bring up all the conversations. I'm the one who's always asking questions.

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I'm the one who's trying to improve the relationship. And my partner just sits there and just thinks that he or she is beyond reproach. You know, I can do no right and the other can do no wrong. Why should I? And sometimes I say you don't have to. But the world you want to live in, you could live with yourself. If you did, it's the person you want to be. From there, I can play the metaphor and the analogy of marriage and relationships, but I also understand that with nationalism and populism rises, there's a limit to the analogy.

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I think that things could completely improve. And your partner may still think that it's because you improved and you would love to for them to say they made a mistake, too. But they actually still think of themselves in this entitled righteous way in which they think you're the one who came to your senses. And that's where I say you want to share reality or you just want to say, my partner thinks that our marriage improved because I changed, because I stopped yelling, because I stopped being critical, because I finally saw whatever he or she was seeing.

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And I will say that's how he views it. And I'm willing for him or her to think that I made all the changes. That's actually a compliment. But if I think you are still basically blaming me, you're still holding me responsible for everything. So before it was you were the problem. Now it's you are the solution. You are the solution is also implied you were the problem. I have to be able to not care and just say, that's OK.

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I accept the compliment. I did all the work, basically my politics completely different than me about what improved our relationship. And I let him think this way because it serves me I have an autonomy to my thinking. I no longer need him to actually think like me in order to have a shared reality. And that is a whole other way of going about this one different bridge. Yeah, and I don't know if that is done on a national level, but I'll tell you something.

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There's a story that just happened to me recently that I've been wanting to share. And I have a flat tire. We're on the highway for four hours. Nobody can pick you up anymore because we're in the middle of this highway. A pickup truck arrives and the guy basically looks at us and he's a foreigner who got asylum, who you would think, you know, you're an immigrant that had this kind of history. You for sure. Bad assumption.

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He looks at us and he says they're an elderly couple that we should let go alone to the city. They only have a doughnut. He drives us for three and a half hours and for three and a half hours. It's like being with Fox News. Every troop, everything, everything he's screaming is so screaming that I'm afraid he's going to run off the road with this truck and our car in the back. And Jack just continues to listen to him, like just kindly listening.

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It's so curious, like how he did it. You would think it's like masochistic. Yeah. But when we arrived, we gave him a big tip. And he looks at us and he says, you're giving me money, even though you know my beliefs, that we are probably really, really quite different than what we think about. And I said to him, I'm not giving you money for your beliefs. I'm giving you money for your behavior.

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And you were kind. And he says, I think I probably should listen a little more and talk a little less. And I said, I think that would be a good idea. You may actually hear some different things that would be important for you. Thank you. It really is one of the experiences that have shaped us in the last months because we could have done the shut up and don't talk and, you know, I don't want to listen to this, but instead we were curious just to see how this whole thing makes sense to him.

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And it's not easy to sit because you start boiling inside, you know, on occasion. It's very hard to listen to people tell you things that you fundamentally disagree with and that will affect you. This is one thing we know in a couple. So we just instantly rebut and to actually let it land on us like that and then still be able to differentiate his thinking from his actions, his kindness, from his racism all at the same time. Yeah.

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Holding multiple perspectives like that. I think that's on occasion when you have it, you feel hopeful. I mean, and what you extended to him in that moment was the benefit of complexity. Yeah. You allowed him to be something more than a Fox News raver, but also a kind neighbor at the same time and break that contradiction in you a little bit. And the other piece that I'm hearing here is about what it does to you, what it does to the person who stops talking and listens to the person who does some kind of outreach, who prioritizes the preservation of the relationship over the righteousness of a specific position.

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But seriously, today, I think that what makes the difference is if there is a relationship, this is what you asked me before. What does it mean to invest in a relationship for you to just want to understand the white man or what the Republicans think or what the Trump supporters think? You will do it. If you have a friend and you can say dude or a woman doesn't matter. Explain it to me. Explain me what you experienced that led to how you think that leads to how you vote because you care about that person.

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You may want to have that conversation or you may say. We have a deep connection. But it stops right here, like in families at this moment, there are people who will continue to love their brothers, sisters, parents, aunts with whom there is an absolute block like we don't go there, we don't do that. But we have enough of the other things that we share history, tradition, family connections for which we are willing to stay together.

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Otherwise, we will really be living lives in front of our own mirrors. And I think families are good training grounds for this to see how the same aunt was a white supremacist. This is a friend of mine who was telling me that my mother died. She says to me and my aunts are white supremacists. But they're the only way that I can stay connected to my mother with people who knew her. And I don't know how to handle it.

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To which you say, you know, basically you only talk about your mother primarily, you just focus on that and it's a good chance that there's not much else that you will share with them unless you say I cannot be in the presence of people who think they are a threat to my survival. And I'll find other ways to remember my mother or you say I'll make sure to see them once a year. I mean, it brings us back to the initial relationship conversation about seeing the person with whom you're in relationship as a threat more than as a partner.

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And that might be a decision that you come to maybe after trying a few things before then. There are many of us who have parents, have partners, have colleagues who have fundamental disagreements with not about what color shade the sky is, but do we take a pandemic seriously or not? Do we believe in the humanity of immigrants or not? Do you know that I used to have screaming matches with my parents every Friday night when we had family gathering of Shabbat, screaming matches about politics, and then they would say, you're young, it's OK to be left.

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When you were young, you learned later. Right. And that was even more like, you know, you you're naive, you know? And I was saying you're immoral. And they were saying you're naive, which is kind of the division between liberal and conservative here. It's like one sees the other as dangerous and naive. The other one sees the other as morally dangerous. And yes, we would finish the screaming match and we'd start doing the dishes together.

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I can't even tell you the rage that would come out of me. Like, how can you say things like this with what you went through? Who are you people kind of thing? And then to think you're my parents.

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And yet you came back for more every Friday evening.

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And so today and so today. And I don't know what I make of this because I hadn't thought about this in a long time. This came up suddenly this week. I said to somebody it was the same conversation over and over and over again. Then I started to feel like it created an ambivalence in my relationship between me and my parents that my parents could be thinking this way. It really is an exercise in attachment like who you try to continue to maintain a connection with.

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What is that connection based on and where you realize this is dangerous for me and I may need to let go of this. I may need to just say bye bye.

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And what I respect about that is it gives you many layers and many options. You know, who am I trying to be in relationship with? What is it based on and when is enough enough? And those are not binary choices. They exist on a spectrum, as you spoke of earlier. It's not do I have any relationship with my aunt at all? It's what kind of relationship, what kind of context am I willing to allow? What topics for discussion are on or off the table for my own sense of safety and well-being and for the preservation in whatever form, at whatever level of some relationship with these people who are important to me.

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Still, that's a that's an exercise and it's a nuanced one. And it's not as simple as friend unfriend.

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But, you know, the thing that you asked me is very true, what you said before about I see my side in a ways, what you say, having tried to make sense of the other. And I don't see any curiosity on the other side to try to meet me, to understand me, to know where I'm coming from. I think this happens in relationships a lot, in intimate relationships. You know, I've tried to understand why he doesn't want to talk, why he's so silent.

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I've got to talk to his parents. I've got you know, I'm putting it in a straight context for a moment, but it doesn't have to be. It's really one person says, I've tried to understand my partner. I've tried to read so many books about, you know, why my partner cheated on me and with so many books about why my partner drinks and I could use them everyday. So when one person is completely invested in trying to understand and the other is really not interested, particularly in being self reflective either, not just a big being curious about you, that's a dynamic in and of itself.

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Yeah, yeah. There's a lack of curiosity in any direction which can create a greater sense of contempt on the part of the party that sees itself as putting forth a lot of effort. You're not curious about me. You're not even curious about yourself. What is this, why do I bother? Three quick ones. One is the national characterisation question. You describe cultures that are more based in the eye and cultures that are more based in the U.S. and they both kind of allow room to reach in the other direction, but their anchor point feels a bit different.

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I think the United States, broadly speaking, is based in an I culture. And I wondered what your read on the individual and collective culture in the US really is. And essentially, are we doomed? Strong word, but to forever try to struggle out of a sense of individuality into something a bit more common and collective, which I think is a requirement for true citizenship, but it feels at odds with the dominant culture.

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The dominant culture tries this individualism, the dominant culture, prises, effort, optimism. There is no problem that doesn't have a solution, even the existential conundrums. Everything has a solution. Break it down to pieces, get to work and fix it. This is kind of core. That is something that foreigners often observe about the US. It's like, what do you do? As if everything has a solution and an answer immediately. Even in psychology, when I arrived, it was very much helping children to figure out what they want to do so they could leave the home.

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And if you were of home in which you wanted the children, not necessarily going to you, an old example to go to the best college because it was far away, because what mattered to you more was to have your kid be able to come home on Sunday for a family dinner and you wanted them close by. You know, you were at odds. Nothing should stand in the way of achievement. No relationships, no family ties, no tradition that stands in the way of that dominant, individualistic piece now inside of us that many, many, many cultures.

[00:39:04]

The question is, when you measure yourself against a dominant, then the institutions represent the dominant, psychotherapy represents the dominant. Instead of seeing this as an alternative model and as a model that is highly resilient and adaptive, we for a long time would see this as what we would call enmeshed families, you know, families who didn't know little to let the people leave and they curtailed the development of the individual because self growth is the measurement stick rather than people who understand that together is important, that there is value in maintaining this weekly gathering, that success is important, but not at the expense of family ties.

[00:39:47]

That's a classic example in family therapy, where this negotiation takes place between the power of the collective and the power of the individual. It's all the time like that. And intersecting with gender, with race, with religion. I mean, it gets layered like this. Yeah, I think there's a reason we're talking about how to dissect the epidemic here. It's not just coronavirus, but it's loneliness, loneliness. People are disconnected, lonely. They have nobody to talk to enough.

[00:40:21]

And a pandemic has just reinforced that. So we can't talk about the problem of loneliness without connecting it to the emphasis on individualism. People think about the lone genius. People talk about I have done this ADIC and talk about the resident all day rather than I did it with. There's always others that help you wherever you are. No, you're not alone getting there. But the notion that somebody could help me weakens me. The notion that I would need to rely on others dependency is such a frightening word to many, many Americans who abide by that.

[00:41:00]

It is really and men more than women. That's a place where I spend a lot of time working. Yeah. Is there anything you want to add on this subject of repairing relationships, investing in relationships in the context of deep political division? When people demonize each other. It's doomed. I mean, you can survive, but you're constantly looking over your shoulder. It's an awful way to live to think that there is threat around you all the time.

[00:41:34]

The other is your threat. And at the same time, I feel like I don't want to see anything that sounds massively naive when people come after you, it will kill you. They want to kill you. And there is not much talking with them that will soften them. I want to make that very clear. Otherwise, I'm just living in La La land for a minute. I think you will find those from who you need to really shield yourself and then you find those with whom you think there's some hope here.

[00:42:02]

There's a possibility and I'm willing to look for the possibilities. In the end, every process of reconciliation has demanded people putting down their arms, all of them, and every process of reconciliation has often been done that every good many by a person that once was completely on the other side. It takes the biggest dictator, it takes both in South Africa to actually begin reconciliation. Mandela Botha is an incredible lesson for us to look at because it's men, it's black and white, it's years of oppression.

[00:42:42]

I mean, I'm not a historian and a political scientist, but that's where I am drawn to go see people have done it. And did they begin to like each other? Probably two men actually realized that they liked each other more than they thought they would. And from that place, they got slightly intrigued. And from that place they decided that actually they have the power to give a legacy to this country that is better than the shit show that could otherwise take place.

[00:43:16]

And why not? Do we have that kind of leadership at this point here or in many other parts of the world at this moment?

[00:43:22]

No, no. At this moment, there are people who are going in a different direction.

[00:43:36]

Are you dealing with best life burnout, constantly striving for more and quite frankly, over it, maybe you just want more joy, peace and laughter in your life now? Well, then, let's go. Welcome to your new favorite podcast, Hot Happy Mars, hosted by Meet Your Girl Jerry Hall. Join us each week as we discuss dating relationships, self care, career wins and losses and so much more. Oh, and moments like this, you know what?

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Sometimes the grass is greener on the other side because it's. Well, that's why I mentioned meeting. There are some people who will check you. We have people in our life. I was crying by the water because I was happy. And I do love a clear, clear, clear. Not because wine will be spilled. Laughs will be had and a few tears might be shed. Messes will be made, but we're going to find our magic in the middle of it.

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That's just not at all. Right.

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[00:45:38]

Now, that is true. Speaking of going in a different direction, I'm interrupting my own interview here to give you a heads up there shortly will take us in a different and more personal direction. Neither of us expected as she shares a lesson she learned as the child of Holocaust survivors in Belgium. Last question topic is something we ask everyone who comes in, we see this word citizen not as primarily about legal status or any kind of status, but about being a verb, a set of actions.

[00:46:16]

If you interpret the word citizen as a verb, how do you define what it means to citizen? It's an active verb. So it's a practice. That constantly needs to be fine tuned, that constantly demands that we check ourselves. I think it's very easy to think that we are good and the other people are not. That demands that we on occasion can see what effects do we have on others that on occasion makes us do stuff which we would never have done.

[00:46:49]

You know, I'll tell you what, answer about citizens and anecdote, but it's so many things that I have not thought about in the wild sometimes come back. I hitchhiked across the US for about almost two months. When many years ago in seventy six, the bicentennial. I was 18 years old. I saw America like I would never see it again. I was invited in all kinds of homes of people that had never heard of Belgium, that had beliefs and ideas of people, that today I would be really disparaging.

[00:47:23]

I would say I have nothing in common with this. They opened their homes, they fed me, they drove me, really the America that I am not very much in touch with at this moment. But they just saw a hitchhiker and there was something very interesting. But they just saw me as a person. And on occasion I was a Jew and I knew they thought Christ killer and I mean went on and on like this. But something about the way that they just were the kindness of strangers and the fact that it was for a moment removed from ideology and politics made it possible for us to have some very interesting moments together.

[00:48:03]

And I do think that as I became more informed and more knowledgeable and more brainwashed as well, I began to be narrower in my acceptance of these people. Today, if I saw them, I would call them sometimes with all kinds of labels rather than they were nice people who picked me up on the road. I try to use that because otherwise I can become bitter and very scared. I have to find ways to humanize other people to be slightly less scared of them.

[00:48:38]

I think that is a big part of citizenship at this moment or citizenry not to dehumanize the other, because the more we dehumanize them, the more frightened we become. And you, more than me, we know we don't have the same fear and we're aware. Thank you for that. You know, in some ways, it's a different type of survival mechanism and there's something that gets triggered in us where we dehumanize another out of a sense of survival.

[00:49:08]

We don't feel safe. There are monster monsters are bad, get away from monsters, destroy monsters. And there's another option, which is actually to humanize them more in response to the feeling of threat so that we're not as afraid.

[00:49:24]

Yeah, my dad told me this when he was in the concentration camp. He said the old guards were nicer than the young ones. I said, explain that to me. He said the old ones had more respect for the elderly. They remember their fathers. The young ones had no connection. So the old one hit you sometimes less hard. He tried to not think the old guards were the same. I'm sure anybody, even today in the prison has makes a distinction between the guards that are nicer.

[00:50:00]

And the guards who have Clemencia in the guard, who doesn't just add the last bit of just sadistic hitting just because they can. Versus the one who thinks he got to back into the cell and that's enough. This is what I'm talking about. I'm not saying we need to love these people and be nice. I just think that there's a way of really looking for the humanity in situations where one would think it's all equal. That's a wrap. I haven't talked about this, you know, it's it's interesting that I know people must do this.

[00:50:38]

It's like the teacher in the school, you know, which is the mean teacher and which is the evil or sadistic teacher. And there's a range everywhere. Yes. In matters of black and white, there's always gray in the whitest white and the black is black. There's still gray. And, you know, I said, that's a wrap. But that wasn't quite true. It's more of an observation to share with you, which is the feeling that many of us have about the other side.

[00:51:06]

I'll speak for myself. I know there are people on the other side of the political establishment in this country who would be happy with my death. And then it's easy for me to then leap to, oh, OK. Sixty six million people voted for me to die. Right. And the complicating re humanizing exercise that I'm trying in my mind right now is to say, probably not. Now, were they willing to look the other way, did it not matter as much as they interpret these as less literal and more metaphorical, where their priorities shifted with their attention elsewhere so that they could put their name on a document which aligns with someone who also aligns with someone who does want me to die?

[00:51:48]

Yes, but that is a much different statement from sixty six million people in my country.

[00:51:54]

And I think you have to be very careful. We all have to be very careful. It's catchy and it's utterly ineffective and terrifying and inaccurate. It doesn't serve. I think you're right. You look in the middle of those 66, there are people who, you know, have nine reasons for which they would be completely allied with you. But there is one thing that made them decide to go to the other side, but not because they hate you.

[00:52:23]

Yeah. And then you probably say, why do I have to do all this effort? I get that, too.

[00:52:30]

Well, I have to if I decide that the marriage that the relationship in this case, that the society is worth it. Do I want to look over my shoulder for sixty six million people? That's very exhausting.

[00:52:43]

That's one out of two voters at least.

[00:52:46]

So one person asked me, why should I? If I can and if it's I think so, I see, because it serves you because it's enlightened self-interest to not think sixty six million won't kill me, it's enlightened self-interest. Yeah. It's not naivete. It's not foolish faith. Thank you. It's there. My pleasure. Oh, good. We've got places. Yes, we have. What a journey.

[00:53:18]

What a journey, indeed, is there. I still can't believe we had her on this show. We are so grateful to us there for joining us. Find her on the Sociales. She's on Instagram under as their PARUL official and on Twitter at their peril. You can go directly to her website as their Paral dotcom, Stapper PRL dot com and you should be able to tap on all those in the show notes if you're consuming this through a mobile podcast app.

[00:53:49]

Now, time for some actions. On the internal front, we've got three things cued up for you, the first, what is your model of relationships and something for you to think about and sit with yourself? Were you raised to believe in self-reliance and autonomy or in interdependence and loyalty? Do you conceive of yourself as an eye trying to develop a wee, or is it the other way around?

[00:54:16]

The next internal thing, take inventory of the relationships in your life, identify those that are polarized because of politics, and determine which relationships make you truly unsafe that you got to let go of, at least for now, and then focus on those where you're still committed to some level of relationship, where you can still see possibility. And in those relationships make a choice. Choose to humanize the other person, choose to list and choose to find common ground, no matter how small.

[00:54:53]

Reflects on your own behavior and language throughout this relationship and ask yourself if you can acknowledge any responsibility for the state of things in that relationship. Just do this with yourself. The last internal action opportunity we have for you is to examine your own perspectives about people who vote differently than you. What about your view or belief about those people makes you fearful of them or of the consequences of their vote if these thoughts were reversed, would they sound fair or accurate to you if they categorized the way you vote and the people you vote with behave?

[00:55:37]

Can you imagine another dimension to one of these other voters as to why they behave or vote the way they do? Can you complicate them in your mind a little bit? All right, all that super easy should be done with that in just a few seconds and then on the external front, a few options here. Three, the magic number still. The first is, I want you to choose to deepen one or two relationships with people who have voted differently from you, just one or two.

[00:56:12]

Instead of ignoring a loved one who voted the way you disapprove of choose to engage with them, but here's the thing, not with a pile of facts, not with arguments, but instead engage with questions. Go all the way back to Episode two with Eric Liu. And remember when he suggested the question, what are you afraid of? What do you think's going to happen in the worst case scenario in your mind? If your side loses this, ask that of this person who you have a relationship with.

[00:56:45]

And add a few more questions. What do you hope for and what do you care about? And then the trick is you got to actually listen to what they say. The second external action option is to build and invest in relationships beyond politics. We need more excuses to connect with each other beyond the explicitly political. In our second episode, again, Eric asked us to start or join a club. Any club do it if you haven't already. And if you have, good for you.

[00:57:18]

We need to stay connected to others through common interests that we share and invest in those relationships in that arena. In the third, it's a bit bigger, wider, more diffuse, but it's definitely out there in the real world. I want you to stay engaged and to recommit during this transition. Our country is literally in a transition. This podcast is in a transition, voting season is over. But it's always the season to citizen. And depending on when you're listening to this voting season might not even be over because of the special runoff election in Georgia, but you get my drift.

[00:57:57]

I need you to keep showing up, to keep investing in relationships, to keep exploring and understanding your power and to keep working for the benefit of the many. This ain't over. It's never over. That's a feature, not a bug of the system. As usual, if you take any of these actions, hit us up action and how to citizen dotcom put humanised in the subject line and share about us on the Sociales with hashtag How to citizen.

[00:58:30]

Now about this end of season talk. I've been dropping all episodes. Are you talk about Baratunde, which means you can't stop listening. We're taking a bit of a pause. This is a wrap on season one, but there will be a season two. There will be a season two. It's very exciting. It's very exciting to get a podcast renewal. I feel so Hollywood. So there's some things I want to say about this first season. But first, I want to reflect back to you a few of the things some of you have said to us.

[00:58:59]

You've hit us up on this email I haven't shared very often. I apologize for that. We'll do more in the second season. But right now I have a few messages to share that reflect a range of sentiment from your. Kelly wrote in, I wish I was a high school history, a civics teacher who could teach us this way. My sons are in high school and it's so boring and I love history, citizenship, civics classes. This format got me thinking and gave me resources to use my power more efficiently.

[00:59:30]

I am so pleased to have found this podcast. I am so pleased, Kelly, that you found this podcast. Thank you so much. In feedback to the show about feeding ourselves, we got this note. Loving the podcast, so many wonderful guests providing diverse perspectives on a variety of topics with real actionable items to back them up. Thank you. Thank you. Someone understood the podcast.

[00:59:54]

This episode struck a chord because I'm here in Humboldt County, California, where we have a program called the Little Free Pantry that is similar to the fridge program in L.A. through an organization called Cooperation Humboldt. Pantries are installed much like you would see community libraries, invisible, highly accessible areas so that people can easily utilize them. This person goes on to write in more details about the shifts in the stocking and who's using the pantries. And it sounds just like the fridge.

[01:00:22]

And if you want to know more about this, if you live in the north coast of California, check out cooperation, humble dotcom. And thank you for writing in about that. This is from Jean, who's written us a couple of times, we see all your messages, Jean, thank you so much. I've listened to all the episodes of How the Citizen except the newest one, which I assume has been remedied by now, Jean. And I've been recommending it widely to all my various citizen circles.

[01:00:46]

I will just send a link or suggestion to the markups new citizen browser project. This is at the Mark-Up, Dag's citizen dash browser, I think it could beautifully add to which are already doing and might make an awesome episode. So this is a browser which allows you to see the flow of just information. We didn't talk a lot about technology in the season, but this is a great tip and we'll try to find a place for it in season two.

[01:01:11]

And the last piece of feedback I wanted to share really cut into some of the type of impact that I was hoping in my wildest dreams we might have just read.

[01:01:23]

Good morning. I stumble across your episode with Phil Goff and Zach Norris on Keeping US Safe Beyond Policing. It was excellent and very informative. I've been following Dr. Gosta work with the Center for Policing Equity and we'll definitely continue to listen to you. I'm in the process of initiating a citizen's survey for our community and we'll use some of your questions in the internal action section of your show. I'm now a subscriber and look forward to listening to future shows, keep up the great work you need to be syndicated.

[01:01:54]

That message came from someone who works for the county sheriff's office at a police department in Colorado. That's why we do the show. We want to raise the bar, we want to transform this word citizen from a state of being to actions that we do, we want to build bridges and not walls. And the way that Tony Johnston showed us, we want to see. Our opponents as just that and not enemies in the way Valerie Carson and we want to make our communities better and safer.

[01:02:30]

And so the idea that someone in law enforcement listen to that heard what we were really putting down and took the time to write. That's just really moving. Also moving the idea that we need to be syndicated and we've got a subscriber out of it, so tell all your people about the show. If you have thoughts like this, share them with us. If there are things you want to see us take on people you know of, still listening hard organizations, themes you want us to explore in an upcoming season, let me know.

[01:03:01]

I like it. If you send a voice memo to comments at How to Citizen Dotcom, you can type it up or you can record a thing and ship it off. But the word of mouth really helps podcast grow. And with this second season, we look forward to growing more with you. Thank you for riding with us on season one. We'll be back with season two sometime in the first quarter of twenty twenty one. We don't have an exact date yet and there's a chance we will drop some items in your feed between now and then, maybe some best of maybe some reflections based on your comments.

[01:03:35]

No explicit promises. But I'm not not promising. I'm just saying it's it's possible. Like our democracy. I want you to remain open to possibilities. In the meantime, here are some ways to stay connected. I am me. I am Baratunde at Baratunde on the social's pick one. That's me. I'm there and you can text me two one two eight nine four eight eight four four. If you put the word citizen in your text that I'll make sure you get updates about the show and things related to the podcast, including when we come back, I'm going to text people first because it's just the easiest thing to do.

[01:04:13]

We also have a social handle on Instagram. Finally for the show, we're slowly building it up. But it's How to Citizen with Baratunde on Instagram. Send us your thoughts on season one. Constructive feedback and criticism is also welcome. We've seen some of that. Thank you. And ideas for where you want us to go. And if you're new to the show, you came in on Episode six. You're like, wait, what? It's over. We got 50 more shows for you.

[01:04:40]

And they're good. They're really good. We're very proud of them. So listen, back to the season. We made the show not for the fall of twenty twenty. We made it to spur investment into all of us, showing up, building relationships, understanding our power and working on behalf of the many. And that's timeless.

[01:04:59]

So I'd love if you revenged the whole thing. But in particular, there are some episodes that I think fall into this transition period we're in as a nation that would help us and help you. The first episode with Valerie Kowa on Revolutionary Love. Give that a real good listen right now, she asks us to wonder about others and our opponents. And as you just heard, as their say in this episode, to be curious about ourselves and those with whom we have a relationship and that works on a national scale to Valerie opened it as they brought it home, is the same thing said differently.

[01:05:41]

Relisten to Valerie. Eric Liu, our professor of civics, the founder of Citizen University Coach Democracy. I got so many code names for this dude. Listen to him in episode two again. The episode about making work work for everyone with Saru and Michelle, we have a lot of thoughts about the economy and the economic situation. We're still in this pandemic. Things are still so hard. No relief is yet in sight. Listen to that, too, and help reimagine in your own mind what an economy could look like that actually worked for you, how your own words might be better valued in an economy.

[01:06:21]

Imagine that. Let's go build that.

[01:06:24]

The youth civics episode, I believe it was Episode eight with Zoe and Josh Woo. That's an injection of specific boost, specific booster shot to listen to young folk. And as you're virtually gathering or safely gathering and there's more young people in your family around you, talk to them. Ask them what they're working on and how you can help. It's a beautiful episode, Tony Johnson, speaking of beauty, the building of bridges and not walls with her folded map project.

[01:06:54]

If ever there were a time that we needed to fold the map in our nation, it is right now. So go back and get moved by Jonica. Desmond Mead has another great episode. Episode 13 on voting. He's down in Florida with the Florida Rights Restoration Coalition that got Amendment four passed that got voting rights restored to people convicted of felonies. And the legislature put a big dampener on that. And I'm pretty sure that DesMoines desired result in the election in Florida was not achieved.

[01:07:29]

But I'm also confident he is so excited that so many more people got to participate in the process because that's part of what he believes in. Desmond will get you fired up and remind you of why we do this, which isn't just about specific electoral outcomes, it's about activation of us. Lastly, on the recommendation playlist, besides, listen to everything. Dr. Michael Osterholm, Episode 15. The kindness pandemic that we need to battle. The coronavirus pandemic there were suffering through right now, it was a really big deal for me to get Dr.

[01:08:06]

Michael Osterholm on this show. He set the wheels in motion for me to take this seriously on March 11th of twenty twenty and to have him help us close out this season is really beautiful. And so were his ideas, the humility with which he approached the racial inequities and injustice in this country and weaving that into the public health challenge of a pandemic. Very elegant. And he's now serving on incoming President Joseph Biden's covid-19 advisory panel. He's one of 13 people, which leads me to think that Joe Biden's been looking at our guest list.

[01:08:43]

Who else is going to poach take them on? Everyone we've had on this show should help lead this country. And everyone who's been a part of the show, who's listened, who's contributed, should also be so tap us or President elect Biden. Because you're the president for us all, whether we voted for you or not. What a season, what a ride. Thank you for. Doing this with me, I will say this for the last time in a little while.

[01:09:14]

How does a citizen with Berrytown Day is a production of I Heart radio podcast executive produced by Miles Gray, Nick Stumpf, Elizabeth Stewart and Baratunde Thurston.

[01:09:23]

Produced by Joel Smith. Edited by Justin Smith.

[01:09:28]

Powered by you. My name is Jamie Loftus, and I'm here to tell you about my new show, Lalita podcast Lolita by Vladimir Nabokov is one of the most controversial works of all time. And our culture has done its protagonist a huge disservice over the years. I've spent the last few months getting to the bottom of how America turned this abused young girl into a sex symbol and what that says about us. New episodes drop weekly on Mondays. Listen to Lolita podcast on the radio app, Apple podcast or wherever you listen to podcasts.

[01:10:07]

It's been 30 years since the first episode of Beverly Hills Nido 2.0, 30 years since we walk the halls of West Beverly High and since we all hung out at the Peach Pit. Relive it all with Jennie Garth and Tori Spelling on their new podcast, Nine 021. OMG. We get to tell the fans all of the behind the scenes stories that actually happened. Join them as they watch every episode of the beloved 90s TV show. From the very beginning, listen to nine 021 OMD on the IHA radio app or wherever you get your podcasts.