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[00:00:00]

If you want to catch up on some of the dinosaur discoveries from the past five years, check out our book, 50 Dinosaur Tales at Why Slash 50 Dinosaur Tales. And that's Talley's. Hello and welcome to I know, I know I'm Garrett and I'm Sebree, and today in our two hundred and ninety ninth episode, we've got a new Portuguese, Karkare Danto. So we're kind of a mouthful.

[00:00:32]

Some geology news which is related to dinosaurs and Dinosaur of the Day Sinusoid Terex. But before we get into all of that, we want to thank some of our patrons. We have two new patrons who joined, which is amazing. We have Dinamo and Francis and his Allosaurus, both great names. Yes.

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And our winners of our random drawing this week are Keli Vikram and Karthick Kailin, Richard Morgan Equiv, Jared Copeland and and Alberta Saurus. So thank you all again for continuing to support us and keep the podcast going. Couldn't do it without you. And Discord continues to be one of my favorite places to go and escape from crazy 20 20 ness. I just delving deep into dinosaur culture.

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Yeah, there's a lot of great conversations going on in there. And I should also mention a couple of people have sent us messages during an exit survey because I know Coronavirus has made money tight for a lot of people. So we obviously understand if you can't afford to continue supporting us, we really appreciate everyone who does, though. But if you put a comment in the exit survey, it's anonymous, so we can't tell who it's coming from. So we don't really have a way to respond.

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So if you want to say something to us, send us a message before you leave and then we'll know who it comes from and we can email you back and forth and stuff like that.

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If you are in a position where you can support your favorite dinosaur podcast, hopefully that's us. Yes. Then consider joining our community at Petrenko. I know.

[00:02:05]

Daito jumping into the news. Up first, we have an update on that Portuguese Karkare dinosaur, which we covered back in episode two hundred and two. You may not remember that because it's about two years ago now in late. Twenty eighteen. Wow. I searched through the history to see if we had covered this before. But back then we talked about this Karkare Dantas or which was found in Portugal and Karkare. Dinosaurs are a subgroup of Alessa Royds.

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So most people tend to think that they were only around in the Cretaceous. But as of lately we've been finding more that are earlier backing up into the Jurassic. So it's kind of changing things a little bit. They're mostly known from places like Africa and South America, not so much North America, but back in twenty eighteen we talked about this Karkare. Announcer It was about one point seven meters are five and a half feet of likely Karkare datasource tail that was found in Portugal.

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And they extrapolated it to about seven point four meters or twenty four feet long and that it probably weighed between one and two tons, putting it in the medium sized about the same size as Allosaurus Majilis sort of range. They also found fragments of the right femur and tibia, as well as a nearly complete right foot. And at the time we remarked that the right foot is the most complete late Jurassic foot on the Iberian Peninsula, which could be helpful for figuring out where footprints came from, if it was from this type of dinosaur or something similar, things like that.

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So pretty good find. But at the time they said, quote, Noah ATAP, a Morphy or exclusive character combination can be recognized in the specimen here described in order to describe it as a new form and quote. So in other words, they didn't think it was worthy of getting a new genus or species name or even being able to assign it to dinosaur species at all. So it kind of sat like that for two years. And then enter Elizabet Mallat fire at all in GVP and they decided that they could name it.

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So they named it Lucila Venator, Santo's High and Loose. Venator is from LOSSA, which basically means Portuguese. It's like an old name for the area in Latin or something like that. So it essentially translates to Portuguese Hunter and Santos II is after José Joaquim dos Santos, who discovered and collected the type in the 1980s and later donated it to the local museum. So you get a dinosaur named after you if you donated a lot of the time. The hall type includes a complete set of hip's, a few ribs and about a dozen vertebrae from all over Lossa Aventador.

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Unfortunately, there's no skull or limb material in the holer type, but they did refer the earlier find with that really good foot and the few other bones that we talked about in that earlier episode as like a parrot type basically. So they think it's the same species and genus, but they're not entirely sure. It's only one of them is the type. I mean, only one of them can be a hollow type in any case, but they're not entirely certain that it is the same genus, partly because the referred bones are about eight million years younger.

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And when. Individuals are eight million years apart. It's pretty likely that they're different species, has a really long time from one species to be around.

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Yes, but the overlapping tail vertebrae that they have, that's the only overlapping bones between the two specimens look really similar. So it's possible that they're the same species. Some species do last for eight million years and they have no reason not to think that they're the same species. So they are for now. Like I mentioned, Lucille Venator is from Portugal specifically. It's from the lorrin formation. And that's a late Jurassic formation, specifically about one hundred and fifty two million years ago, give or take a couple of million years.

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Obviously, there's an eight million year younger specimen from the same formation. So it spans a pretty wide time range. It's actually really similar time range to the Morrison formation in the US where Allosaurus is obviously another Alice. Right. And like many environments around the Mesozoic, Larranaga includes a whole bunch of medium to large predators. It includes Saradha Saurus Torosaurus and Allosaurus Europese, which is sometimes also considered Allosaurus for Jilly's, depending on if you think it's similar enough to be its own species or not.

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The formation also contains the smaller Lauran homozygous at about four point five meters or 15 feet long. They didn't speculate on the age of Lusa Venator, but they did note that all of the vertebrae are confused, so it's likely that it's a juvenile. Scott Hartmans Skeletal has it about three point five meters or 11 feet long, which obviously is way shorter than the twenty four feet long from a couple of years ago when they were looking at the parrot type, what is now the type.

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So if that older estimate still holds up, then this is a lot smaller than it would have ultimately gotten as a full adult. Although Scott Harmon specifically warned us, the skeletal scale buyers are often not all that accurate. So maybe I shouldn't be basing it off of his specific skeletal drug, but it's the best I can do.

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They didn't put it in the text. The phylogenetic analysis of Lossa Venator puts it in as a basal Karkare Idont saw, which shouldn't be surprising that it's Basle since it's in the Jurassic and until recently most people considered the Cretaceous when you'd find caracara dinosaurs. Another useful thing about finding this, Cark Herodotus, or is that Lossa Aventador quote, supports unequivocally the hypothesis of a pre Cretaceous scenario for the radiation of the clade, end quote. So this is another case of Gilks lineages shrinking way down because there used to be this really long ghost lineage from Allosaurus type timeframe.

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One hundred and eighty million years ago, all the way until the Cretaceous began and you started seeing the first Karkare Dantas whores. But now we're filling in the gaps with some other Karkare dinosaurs. So certainly, although maybe I should mention there have been a couple of other discoveries that have also challenged the car haired ancestors only being from the Cretaceous, some like other Jurassic Fynes. So this isn't the first one, but I think it's probably the best find of a Jurassic Park.

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Herodotus or to date and it's the first known location, Herodotus or from the Jurassic, which is also handy because the other ones in Tanzania still we don't have any Karkare answers from the more information. We just have the Allosaurus analysis. Royds It could be more evidence that Europe and North America weren't connected at the time, but then reconnected later in the Mesozoic. Can it also be we just haven't found enough fossils yet? Yes, it could be.

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You might be able to argue that the Morsan already had a bunch of large predators because you've got Allosaurus for Jilly's and Sorer Feighan X, also known as Allosaurus Maximus. But like we see on the in, there are lots of these weird assemblages that have just tons of large predators, especially dinosaurs. So wouldn't be the first area to have a wide array of large carnivorous dinosaurs. But the Morrison is pretty well explored and we haven't found any Karkare dinosaurs yet, so it's possible that they're not there at all.

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It's hard to prove the absence of something, but at least we know that they were around definitely in the late Jurassic now in Africa and Europe. Up next, as promised, we've got a little bit geology going on, who this one was written by Adriana Mancuso and others and published in Gondwana Research, which is pay walled. And usually that annoys me, but it's geology. So I think a summary is fine.

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I see. Yeah, there were a couple of articles about it so I could fill in the gaps pretty well. Specifically in this paper. They were looking at the Kanae fluvial explosion. That's my preferred name for it. It goes by a couple other names, but they're all abbreviated C.P.E. and it's in the Kanyon, which is a stage in the late Triassic, about two hundred thirty seven to two hundred twenty seven million years ago, which you may notice is basically when dinosaurs first started diversifying a lot and we start finding them in the fossil record.

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Specifically during the C.P.E., there was evidence of a lot of volcanism in western Canada and for a long time there's been a question of whether or not this caused a bunch of climate change and whether that climate change may have been what led to dinosaurs popping up in the fossil record at that point. Another question is whether or not that climate change happened globally or if it was just in the northern hemisphere, because sometimes since this is volcanism, it can stay in one hemisphere depending on how the winds blow and how big of a volcanic eruption it is and things like that.

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But fortunately, these researchers were working in the YSK while Asato formation in northwest Argentina, and that's where a lot of early dinosaurs and dinosaurs morphs are found to the point where a lot of people think that this might even be where dinosaurs originated. I wonder if we'll ever know for sure. It's really hard to tell.

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But back then, the continents were all still stuck together. So where they originated, it isn't really all that important because it's all just kind of one continent and they would have spread out really quickly. This formation is really useful because as co-author Randall Irma's from the University of Utah said, quote, Our study focused on these rocks because they had the perfect combination of a good fossil record dateable, ash layers and rich climate data preserved in lake sediments, end quote.

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So specifically, this paper dated the formation to two hundred and thirty four point four seven plus or minus zero point for four million years ago using uranium lead isotope dating. So it's right about two hundred thirty four million years ago. And I believe that that two hundred, thirty four million years ago is about three million years before earlier estimates of the C.P.E., although I saw a couple other places that were dating it to two hundred thirty four.

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So it's possible dinosaurs were a little bit earlier than we originally thought.

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Yeah, so this puts the CPE near the beginning of the Kanyon, whereas before you might have put it more in the middle of the Kanyon. And we know that there are a lot of dinosaurs in this formation, so it helps to tie together the C.P.E. with dinosaurs really starting to diversify with that date. So really what it means is we know that there are a lot of dinosaurs from this formation from before and now we can date them to two hundred, thirty four million years ago.

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And it's also a good date for the C.P.E.. So it's handy in a lot of ways. They also looked at the carbon and oxygen isotopes. That was the part about the climate data that was preserved and they found that they were stable around the c.p, which is interesting because a lot of other things say that they changed dramatically, although they did say overall it shows that the SEPI in Gondwana was warmer and more humid than the periods before and after.

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So I guess it changed during the C.P.E., but during the C.P.E. it was stable and then switched back to like a drier and cooler climate. I'm going to talk more about the Cardium fluvial event during the fun fact. But suffice it to say that this article seems to confirm that the C.P.E. was a global event and it does seem to line up pretty well with at least some of the early dinosaur fossils that we have. And it showed that, like we expected, it was warmer and more humid than the rest of the late Triassic the geology and helping us understand the origins of dinosaurs.

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So even though it was a paywall article, still useful. Mm hmm. Open access is better. In other news university in Malaysia, Clinton recently found dinosaur footprints in Bukit Pano, which is a state constituency in the state of Clinton in Malaysia. There sauropod footprints. It took researchers over ten thousand hours to work on the tracks and confirm that, yes, they did come from sauropods. The article said that the sauropod had a spine that was probably 30 feet or nine metres tall and weighed 30 to 40 tons.

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And it also said that these tracks. Are from between one hundred and sixty to 66 million years old, although it was a little bit unclear, they had a few different numbers in there. That is a ridiculously large time range. Yes, that's longer than even just all of the Cretaceous.

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Yeah. So it sounds like there might be some more work to do.

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Yeah, but it's cool that they found the. And last, I don't know why this keeps coming up, but I guess it's a popular topic. So How to Geek shared a way to hack that hitting Google Chrome dinosaur game, the chasing one where you can make your T-Rex invincible. And I tried it. I impressed Garrett very briefly. And then he saw my T-Rex run through some cactus and it didn't end the game. So he wasn't so impressed after that.

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Yeah, but I did finally see the pterosaur and also the very abrupt changes between night and day in the game. If I wasn't invincible, I probably would have lost when it changed between the two.

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I think I did a pretty good job of the transition. But yeah, I was really impressed. And I was telling somebody, wow, look at you go, you're doing such a great job. And she said nothing even though she was cheating. And then I was like, I thought you hit that cactus a little bit and she didn't say anything. And then eventually she just ran straight through one and I realized something was up.

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I told you you did. I did want to see how long I could get you to believe it was me being really good at the game, how many thousands of points you could get.

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And it was a lot before I noticed it was.

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You were doing a good job, though, and then the game got so fast it was getting a little blurry for me. And then I just let it run for a while just to see if something changed.

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When you got a certain number of points, spoiler alert. It doesn't really it just goes faster and faster. Yeah.

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Although I forget how many points I racked up before I gave up, I think about ten thousand. Yeah. It was a lot longer than you'd usually have to wait for your Internet to start working again, which is when that screen usually pops up.

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Yeah. Yeah. Because that game pops up when your internet is not connected. Today's episode is brought to you by every plate America's best value meal kit, they recently started offering contactless delivery to your doorstep, which is awesome if you're trying to minimize exposure.

[00:16:56]

Yeah, it also does the meal planning and the shopping for you comes with recipes and all the ingredients you need for the recipes. So it takes a lot of the guesswork out of it and cuts down a lot of time for cooking.

[00:17:08]

It's also incredibly affordable, even at regular price. Every plate is up to fifty eight percent cheaper than other major meal kits out there. And the food is really good. My favorite that we got in our sample pack was the creamy Cajun chicken sausage, Penni, and it is as delicious as it sounds, a lot of good flavors there. I have a little spice to it too. My favorite was the Gravy Lover's Meatballs, and it was the first time I've made meatballs, but they tasted really good and they weren't as hard as you thought they'd be either, which is good.

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Yeah. If you want to try out every plate, you can get three weeks of meals for only two ninety nine per meal by going to every plate dotcom and entering code ICDs three. So again, every plate dotcom promo code I three. If you haven't already, check out our book Fifty Dinosaur Tales and one hundred and eight more discoveries from the Golden Age of Dinosaurs and the Golden Age of Dinosaurs is right now, by the way. So their new discoveries look.

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Yes, yes. That's why we do this podcast to keep up with the golden age of dinosaurs. So in this book, we have a whole bunch of stories, 50 to be exact, including every major group of dinosaurs from all seven continents. And every short story is from a dinosaur discovery since twenty fourteen. So they're all very new discoveries that aren't in a lot of other books. In addition to those 50 stories, they're also one hundred quick fact sheets about other finds from the last six years.

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It's available at BEDEL. Why 50? The number five zero dinosaur is tales, as in the tales that we're telling about dinosaurs, not the dinosaur tale themselves. You can also get it by joining or upgrading to the Tyrannosaurus level on our Patreon.

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And now for our Dinosaur of the Day, sinusoidal T-Rex, which was a request from Diplodocus via our patron and discord. So thanks Spinosaurus T-Rex was a method that lived in the early Cretaceous in what is now Liaoning province in China. In the Aegean formation. It was small and the longest specimen found was about three and a half feet, or one point seven metres long, and weighed one point two pounds or half a kilogram. The hollow type of dinosaur T-Rex was only 27 inches.

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Sixty eight centimeters long, but it was a juvenile senator. Terex was bipedal. It had short arms, large claws on its first fingers and a long tail, its tail so long there were six teeth, four vertebrae in the tail hoof. It's the longest tail relative to the body length of any known theropod. Wow. Yeah. So as you can imagine, the tail probably helped it balance while it ran. It also had long legs. Its arms were about 30 percent the length of its legs.

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So it wasn't that birdlike then. Its birdlike in other ways, which I'll get to just not in the having wings way.

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I suppose if its hands were long though, compared to its arms and it had three fingers on each hand, it also had a high school. So Dinosaur T-Rex was similar to Comsec. Mathes, the type an only species is dinosaur T-Rex Prema and the genus name means Chinese reptilian wing. The species name means first, and it refers to the fact that it's the first feathered non avian dinosaur found. Wow. Yep. So that makes it pretty bird. Like the original description of dinosaur T-Rex found that this dinosaur, quote, upsets and supersedes the over one hundred year standing of Archaeopteryx as the ancestor to birds, end quote.

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And it helps show Angstroms proposal that their pods turned into birds.

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A few people lately would probably dissent with that statement that it supersedes Archaeopteryx as an ancestor to birds. But the evolution of dinosaurs into birds is still really messy and hard to tell.

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Yes, but this was the original description, which was in 1996. It was described by GMG. So again, it's the first dinosaur outside of Avella to be found with evidence of feathers.

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It's not closely related to Archaeopteryx and it's distantly related to age, so it's not a bird depending on how you look at it, I guess.

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Yeah. Dinosaur T-Rex was discovered in 1996 by Lee Uman, who's a farmer and fossil hunter. The fossils were found in two slabs and he sold them to two museums, the National Geological Museum in Beijing and the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology. It was a really big find. It got a lot of scientists and artists excited, including Phil Currie, Michael Scrat, Nick and John Ostrum. Three specimens have now been found and described and assigned to sinusoid Terex.

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One of the specimens may actually be a new species or even a new genus, but it hasn't been officially named dinosaur. T-Rex was carnivorous. It ate insects and small mammals. It had heteros teeth, so different shape teeth with teeth on the upper jaws being slender, not serrated, and then teeth behind them on the maxilla were serrated. One specimen was found with lizard gut contents and it was likely that that was Darling Joe Saurus, which was a fast running lizard.

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It's also been found with small eggs in the abdomen, though they were in the wrong part of the body for the egg shells to have stayed intact. So it's likely they were actually unleased sinusoid T-Rex eggs and not something to eat. These eggs were one point four inches or 36 millimetres long and one inch or twenty six millimetres wide. And there are two of them. So having two eggs may mean that dinosaur T-Rex had dual oviduct like other theropods and then it laid eggs in pairs.

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That's cool, because we've always wondered when dinosaurs switched from two ovaries to one another specimen, the one that may be another species or genus, was found with mammal jaws in its gut region, including the jaws of Genghis Cerium, which is a venomous mammal. This mammal had tarsal spurs spurs on the feet that were similar to the modern platypus, which also produces venom, while many fun fact. Yeah, so the dinosaur T-Rex was the first nonliving dinosaur found with feather like structures.

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It had these simple filament like feathers. They were short, small and uniform, so primitive feathers and they were up to one point two inches or three centimetres long. So dinosaur T-Rex couldn't fly, but its feathers may have been used for insulation or display these primitive feathers. Again, they're short. They're down like filaments. They were on the back of the head, the arms, the neck, the back. And then the top and bottom of the tail feathers have also been found on the sides of the body of dinosaur T-Rex in Patches and Chen and suggested that based on the patches and randomness of these patches, dinosaur T-Rex probably covered in feathers when it was alive.

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Oh, like it wasn't a pattern. So it's probably just it was taxonomy that some of the feathers were missing. Yeah. Didn't actually have bald spots. Or maybe it did. Well, there's a gap between the feathers and the bones, and that was probably filled in by skin and muscle tissue. Scientists found by looking through a microscope that the filaments were dark along the edges and light inside. So they may have been hollow like feathers of modern birds.

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The feathers, they were too dense to examine single structures, however. But there may have been two types of filaments, thick and thin ones, and the thick ones were stiffer. The feathers may have had a central quill with thinner projections or barbs coming out, which is similar to modern bird feathers, but then with more primitive structures in twenty eighteen, even Seada and others did a study that found the thick filaments may actually be bundles of thin filaments.

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They found that the thick filaments didn't have any calcium phosphate and that's what's found in modern feather quills. They suggested that dinosaur T-Rex feathers were single branch filaments, though maybe sometimes they joined at the base into Tuff's kind of like down like feathers. The filaments of dinosaur T-Rex were controversial at first and thought by some to be collagen fibers instead of primitive feathers, and that these fibres formed a frill on the back and under the tail. Like some modern aquatic lizards, not having feathers would mean that dinosaur T-Rex was not the most Bazil known theropod with feathers.

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And it would also call into question the theory that feathers evolved for insulation first instead of flight and that they appeared in Bazil Dinosaurs that evolved into birds. So many scientists did not agree that the structures were fibres. Then twenty seventeen paper by Smethwick and others found that the structures were definitely not collagen fibers. They compared it to well-known collagen fibers in the ichthyosaur stannow tear gas. And they found that the apparently shaped like collagen fibers in the ichthyosaur were actually scratch marks and cracks.

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And the shafts in sinusoid tariffs were the actual fossilised structures. Twist. Hmm. They also found no evidence of the filaments having beaded structures similar to those found in decaying collagen in. Modern sea mammals and suggested that parts of the fossil was preserved in 3D and they just cast shadows in the low quality photos that looked like these beaded structures. And that's just an example of scientists using extant animals and animals that we can study closely to compare to extinct animals.

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In the hall type in the abdomen of sinus editrix, there's a pigmented area that was thought to possibly be traces of organs, maybe the liver that John Rubin and others described as part of a crocodilian like, quote unquote, hepatic piston respiratory system, which is this specialized breathing mechanism where muscles attach to the liver and pubic bones of the hip and they pull the liver back to inflate the lungs for short bursts of running and activity. Hmm, that's weird.

[00:27:08]

Here.

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A later study found that the pigment in area is probably part of an organ or something inside the body, and the organs would have been distorted and flattened through the fossilization process. The dark pigment was also found in the area. Sinusoid Terex was the first dinosaur to have its colors scientifically described, and it had this reddish light banded coloration on its tail. Nick Longridge in 2002 suggested that it had a banding pattern on the tail that alternated between dark and light colors because the dark banded areas were so evenly spaced, it couldn't have been from random separation of the fossil slabs.

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So it must have been fossilized pigments. Also, Spinosaurus may have had counter shading with dark feathers on the top of the body and lighter colors on the bottom. And then the bands on the tail would have helped it to camouflage food. Changgeng and others in 2010 supported this idea when they found evidence of preserved Milena's domes and they confirmed the dark and light tail banding of dinosaur T-Rex. They compare Marlena's zone types to those in modern Bern's and came up with a range of colors and they found the darker sinusoid.

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Herrick's feathers in the tail were chesnut or reddish brown, and it's based on these Molano zones being spherical in shape. They don't know the color of the lighter stripes, though, because some pigments degrade and you can't tell them from fossils. But finding these Molana zones is more evidence that these structures were feathers. Later, finding found that dinosaur T-Rex had a bandit mask like a raccoon around its eyes, and it had counter shading patterns on its body, usually associated with an animal that lived in an open habitat.

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So not much covering instead of a dense forest. And that means that the whole biota in the Aegean formation and geophone formation had a variety of habitat types, not just forced.

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But counterfeiting is useful in forests as well. It's just a little less dramatic. I think it could be so with the counter shading sinusoid, Turks could blend in and dinosaurs we know had good vision. So they needed camouflage and for sinusoid tricks, it needed to blend in to avoid predators and also sneak up on its prey. So it's bandit mask may have helped with defense or to be a warning signal.

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Would it help with defense because it'd be harder to find the eyes in a fight or something? I think so. But Sinusoid Terex was so small it probably wasn't a threat to larger theropods because its tail was so long, it probably couldn't hold its tail perfectly horizontal all the time. So having the banded tail may have helped throw off predators and prey, basically by being a distraction and drawing attention away from the head in the body. It's also possible that the banding on the tail made it less recognizable to predators.

[00:29:53]

So dinosaur tricks probably spent a lot of time in the sun, not in the shade, and it lived in an area with freshwater lakes, Gymnich sperm forests like conifers and a lot of insects, bivalves and gastropods, as well as mammals and birds. There were a lot of volcanic eruptions and wildfires and noxious gases that came from the lakes, but it was temperate. There were wet and dry seasons. The yearly temperature was about 50 degrees Fahrenheit or 10 degrees Celsius and pretty cool.

[00:30:21]

And our fun fact of the day is about the Khanin fluvial explosion, a.k.a. the carnie and fluvial event or the Kanae and Fluvial episode, fortunately they are all abbreviated.

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C.P.E. It's a lot of different names. It is. I feel like there's probably others as well. But in every case, Kanyon, is that period in the late Triassic that we were talking about earlier, when we start to see a lot of dinosaurs in the fossil record and fluvial refers to rainfall. So it's a little bit different than some of the other extinction events that we talk about in general. The C.P.E. was a rainy and humid period in the late Triassic, but it was otherwise pretty dry, like I mentioned earlier.

[00:31:01]

So we can tell this because there are changes in oxygen isotopes and those are linked to either a significant warming or a drop in water salinity or possibly both.

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And the significance of reduced salinity is that it's probably a result of more rain, which obviously gives you a little bit of information about the environment. During the C.P.E., lots of ocean life went extinct, including some types of algae and lots of invertebrates like amyloids and some small filter feeders like really small millimeter type size. There was lots of volcanism and rangeela during the S.P. and Wrangell is a town in southern Alaska. The area of Rangeela stretches down through much of Yukon and British Columbia, Canada, and some people also include part of the northwestern US.

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But the important thing about it is that during the C.P.E. there was a lot of volcanism happening which released a bunch of carbon dioxide and possibly sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere. It wasn't a violent explosion, so it didn't launch the stuff into the upper atmosphere with a bunch of ash. So it wouldn't have reflected a lot of the sun. But in general, carbon dioxide absorbs sun and warms things up. That's the whole global warming thing happening now, whereas sulphur dioxide tends to reflect the sun, especially if it gets in the upper atmosphere and cools things off.

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However, I think in this case, more carbon dioxide was released or at least enough more was released, that it seemed to warm the environment and it could have also led to ocean acidification, which might be why some of these hard bodied animals that have calcium on their outsides went extinct because acidification ends up dissolving that. So that's something we're seeing now with coral reefs and things struggling with the increased acidification of the water. On the plus side, some new animals appeared as well.

[00:32:57]

In addition to early dinosaurs showing up, there were also the first dinoflagellates, which are these really cool little microorganisms.

[00:33:04]

Some of them will light up. There are also new plankton and lots of new trees. The new trees might actually be a clue for why dinosaurs started thriving at that point, because dinosaurs are relatively taller than other animals that were around at the time. And it's possible that they were able to enjoy the leaves of these new trees more than the other animals. And basically then they had this additional food source that other animals couldn't take advantage of. They also had Gaster lists while some of the other animals didn't.

[00:33:33]

And some of these new trees had pretty tough leaves. You know, they're basically like pine trees with tough neatly type stuff. And some of the shorter animals could only handle soft stuff like ferns. So they kind of had a double advantage in this way. They could eat the trees and they could also digest them.

[00:33:53]

The range of time for the S.P. isn't exactly known, but it's sometime in the Kanyon, fortunately. So the name isn't going to need to change. It's around two hundred and thirty to two hundred and thirty four million years ago, but it was probably about a two million year stretch in there. So we don't know exactly where that two your stretch was in that period. The new paper by Mancuso at all that I talked about earlier shows those diverse dinosaurs about two hundred thirty four million years ago.

[00:34:19]

So it's a little bit closer to the early end. But even with those diverse dinosaurs showing up at two hundred thirty four million years ago, right during that C.P.E., the SEPI wasn't really the beginning of the reign of dinosaurs and dinosaurs dominating the world ecosystem, at least on land.

[00:34:36]

That didn't happen until 30 million years later when the Triassic Jurassic extinction happened. And that really wiped out all the non dinosaur Arkansas's. And they really took over in a major way. And we started seeing stuff like really big sauropods and all sorts of cool big theropods and lots of stuff evolving during the Jurassic. And that wraps up this episode of A.I.M. Thanks for listening. Don't forget to subscribe to us in your favorite podcast apps. You don't miss out on any new episodes and come join our growing dinosaur enthusiast community at Patriae and Dotcom.

[00:35:11]

Eino Dinu. Thanks again.

[00:35:13]

And until next time, Jimi. Come on.