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[00:00:00]

If you want to catch up on some of the dinosaur discoveries from the past five years, check out our book, 50 Dinosaur Tales at Why Slash 50 Dinosaur Tales. And that's Talley's. Hello and welcome to I know, I know, I'm Karen and I'm Sabrina. And today in our two hundred and ninety fifth episode, we have a bunch of news, including an Kylah saw with gut contents and a new a Pottermore even better.

[00:00:37]

Do we have a dinosaur of the day, Krypto saurus? But before we get into all of that, we want to thank 10 of our patrons who were the lucky drawing winners this week. And they are Melo Stegall to placate Jackson Crawford, Richard Stengel, Sophie Ray Vikram and Karthick, Daniel McGill, Greg and John Heck. Yeah.

[00:01:00]

Thank you so much, everybody. We really appreciate all of your support. And if you want to get in on this, not just having your name called out, but also requesting dinosaurs and watching movies with us and chatting underscore while we do it every week, then check out our page at Patry and Dotcom's. I know Daniel. Jumping into the news, up first, we have to end this on our paper because and Kyle, stories always come before sauropods, though they don't even when the sauropods are near dinosaurs.

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I don't know about this method.

[00:01:34]

This paper is fantastic. And it is gut contents, which is another one of your favorites.

[00:01:38]

Yeah, but compared to Sauropod, I know it's a sauropod a more if it's not even a real sauropod and just get on with it.

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OK, so this article is written by Caleb Brown and others and that's a clue what it is. It was published in the Royal Society Open Science, which is open access, and it's really well written. We talked to Caleb Brown years ago at this point when shortly after he described Borealis Delta area. There are good gut contents. There are. But they haven't been formally described or really described in any way that I had seen before this paper came out.

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So I really like this article because in it they define most of the botany terms for us dinosaur people. So it's not too hard to follow along with. But I had to go down a much rabbit hole anyway just because it is very interesting.

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But what it's all about is that Borislow Palta gut contents. You're probably familiar with Borealis Delta. It's that amazing. And Kylah at the Royal Tyrrell Museum in Alberta, Canada, it looks almost mummified. It has its eyelids. It has keratin on its armour, on its back, and obviously gut contents as well. It's pretty much articulated. It looks just like something I buried and preserved exactly like it was stuck in Carbonite Star Wars style. And then they've discovered it one hundred million years later, one of the coolest finds I've ever seen.

[00:03:04]

But this paper is all about the kolo light or Colen Rock the Dinosaur. I hadn't heard of Koula Light before. We usually talk about coprolite, which is the poop fossilized. This is the fossilized anything in the GI tract. It doesn't have to be specifically in the colon. Good to know. Yeah. And in this case they think it was probably in the stomach or in the gizzard. More of that later. But interestingly, the stomach position of Borealis Palta, where they ended up sectioning off little samples to test what was in the gut contents, it's in the same position that Koombana saurus, that Australian and Kylah had its got contents.

[00:03:48]

And apparently it's pretty much where our stomach is.

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Sort of like if we're on all fours and you pointed to your stomach, that is essentially where the stomach is in the zinc or it's maybe a little bit farther down because our stomach is actually kind of up by our heart. Most people think our stomachs are actually pointing to their intestines. Your stomach isn't really by your belly button. That's intestines a little higher up and on the left side. And apparently that left sided shift is the same in almost all vertebrates.

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So including fish, humans, dinosaurs, we all have our stomach kind of in our torso on the left side. It's pretty interesting. It is interesting. That's one of those things where it's like something you wouldn't predict being the same in everything by evolution. But I guess there's no reason for it to shift around all the time.

[00:04:35]

Yeah, the authors point out that, quote, mega herbivores, in other words, over a metric ton have disproportionate effects on the landscapes they occupy and are termed keystone herbivores, end quote. So what exactly? Boreal Apelt eight is obviously very important because it had a pretty big impact on the environment, although Boreal Palta is estimated at thirteen hundred kilograms or twenty nine hundred pounds, which is even smaller than a lot of today's mammalian mega herbivores, which are mega herbivores, apparently are now mammals.

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There are no more mega herbivorous dinosaurs. Even ostriches are a little too late to make the cut. No, true, but it may be imagined like sauropods at tens of thousands of kilograms. Just how much they would have impacted the environment would have made this borealis health impact seem small by comparison, I'm sure. So, like I said, in order to figure out the gut contents and what it contained, they took thin slices of the gut contents and then threw it under a microscope.

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That's the process known as histology that we talk about a lot. It's destructive. So it's not always popular to do because once you cut it, you can't uncute it. But you can learn so much from doing this kind of sampling. If you read a report about it, you probably got the wrong idea about what was in his gut contents. Everything I saw said that it was eighty eight percent plant material. It's definitely not eighty eight percent plant material.

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It was fifty five percent rock in the form of gastro gastritis. So most of what was in there was rocks for grinding up the food.

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That's a lot of gastro is it was twenty five percent matrixx which is basically Phil Rock that came in during the fossilization process. Seven percent empty space and just 13 percent actual plant food in the mix. That seems like a very inefficient digestive system.

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Well, it's possible. I mean, we don't know exactly what it was like when it was alive. So it's possible that maybe that material digested a little bit more after it it died because it's sitting in stomach acid, presumably. So maybe that empty space, maybe it was like 20 percent before, or maybe the Matrix squished it down. So it was taking up more space. It's hard to say. Do you think the rocks in its stomach helped it sink to the bottom of the water?

[00:06:53]

Maybe, although usually when they depict the bloat and float thing, they have it upside down with the stomach up. So I guess relative to that huge armor shield on its back, the rocks were nothing.

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Yeah, probably not too much, but it might have helped. I don't know. They didn't find any animal parts in there. I was kind of hoping they'd be just like a little piece of a mammal or like a little tooth or something to show that this enclosure was munching on a slow ball or some other animal. But I can't think of an animal that's much slower than an Oculus or they're not. You have to be quick to hunt even something that's injured.

[00:07:29]

And I don't think any stories are really up to the task. Maybe they could have scavenged, though, who knows of the plant material that 13 percent of the stomach, which is actually something maybe it could have digested 80 percent of it is basically leaves, they call it. It leaves, but it's really like eighty five percent ferns and about three percent cycads. And then some traces of conifers, which are things like pine trees and redwood and maybe a tiny bit of angiosperms in the mix.

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So it's mostly eating ferns. I guess ferns have leaves, but it's not usually what I think of when I think of leaves. It's a different sort of thing. Most of that, too, was in sort of a mashed up, partially digested sort of look to it. It wasn't like these nice, you know, fern pressings where you could look at it and see it. And all this detail is kind of mashed up and not super easy to identify the other 12 percent of the plant material, because I said 80 percent of his leaves contained, three percent stems, four percent other wood and six percent charcoal.

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Other wood. Yes. You know, when you're eating and you don't have hands, you might accidentally pick up some, like bark or larger things that are a little bit bigger than a stem. Yeah, it happens. And they've got the pastoralists in a pretty hardy digestive tract. So I guess they're not sweating four percent of their food being just wood.

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Although if I was served something in seven percent of it was in edible wood, I wouldn't be super excited about it. Or maybe 12 percent.

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If you include the charcoal, that's a big percentage when you consider only 13 percent was vegetation. Yeah, that's true.

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Which makes it only like 11 or 12 percent. That's actually digestible for the charcoal is really interesting because it might indicate that Bori Allapattah was munching on ferns in a recently burned down conifer forest, which gives you a good stage to think about what it might have looked like in its final days or knew about the benefits of activated charcoal.

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Yeah, that's as possible. Some animals do intentionally eat charcoal, so it could be doing that sort of like the hadrosaur that seem to be eating wood to get out those crustaceans in it, to get the calcium. It could be the same kind of weird thing that we don't know about or likes the smoky flavor.

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And yeah, but in order for there to be that much charcoal around, it did have to be somewhere that there was a fire at least semi recently. I would say, in order to really carefully determine whether what they were looking at was gut contents versus just other plant material that happened to fossilise about where a stomach would be, they really carefully compared the gut contents or the presumed gut contents to the surrounding matrix. That wasn't in the gut contents. But it's really important with herbivores because there's a huge opportunity for contamination.

[00:10:32]

Basically, we're mostly looking at stuff like pollen that fossilise is relatively easily. And you can easily imagine that when it died, if it's opened up, any kind of pollen could easily just get inside its body. And then if you're looking inside and you'd say, oh, well, this is inside, it must be something at 8:00. But really during fossilisation, most of the stuff that ends up where its guts would be is just surrounding Matrix. Right?

[00:10:58]

It's just stuff that's in the environment. So it's a really important thing to look into. One of the keys to this is looking at differences between what's inside and outside because presumably animals don't eat everything equally. We tend to assume that they have a little bit of a selection going on. They're not just shoveling everything into their mouth. They probably prefer one food. Or another, so if there's more of one type of food inside and it's a different distribution than what's outside, that's a good clue.

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But one of the problems with that can be if you imagine, say you've got a dinosaur and it's kind of opened up on the guts side because it's dead and things are snacking on it or it's decaying. If there's some sort of flow of material, it could potentially select for different types of materials like, say, smaller things might collect inside the abdomen, whereas larger things might wash by if the water is running by and it's kind of moving material by.

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So that alone isn't really good enough. You want to look for a lot of other factors that came up with like 14 different factors in what might tell you that it was gut contents versus just surrounding material. And they went through and they ranked every other herbivorous dinosaur that has preserved gut contents, which really wasn't that many. There are only like eight of them that I guess were good enough to make their list. One example is a sauropod and it's quote unquote gut contents and included an Allosaurus tooth and a bunch of other bone fragments.

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And maybe he was using that as a makeshift gastro mavie.

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But it seems a lot more likely that this wasn't actually it's got contents and it was just material that was sort of washed in. Yeah, and that's basically what everyone has said since that paper was published. Like, this probably isn't really got gut contents. Come on, guys, just because it was inside the abdomen doesn't mean that it's got contents. There's also an advantage you can find where some things preserved better inside versus outside the guts, like I was talking about, with how a lot of the material that seems to be gut contents was sort of mashed up.

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That's the kind of thing you'd expect to see in gut contents, whereas you wouldn't expect to see that sort of mashed mess outside. You'd expect to see more intact structures potentially. And then there are other things like spores that are just even like apparently they're super durable. So you can find them inside, outside, all over the place. So after that, they went through all of these traits and went through all of the other herbivorous dinosaurs. They threw out almost all of the other dinosaurs and said, like, that probably isn't gut contents or there isn't a lot of support for it, except they had one other really good case.

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And other than Borealis Pelzer, the only other dinosaur they considered well-supported in terms of its contents was Kambara source and Cumba source is that much smaller Australian and closer. We saw it at the Queensland Museum just about nine months ago. Now I think it's the one that they compare to to figure out what part of the stomach they were looking at. Yeah, it was like right in that exact same spot as goombah source. And interestingly, though, in Canberra source, it is much smaller, but they didn't find any gastroplasty in it, which makes me think maybe Canberra source.

[00:14:07]

They were sampling the stomach versus borealis, although they were sampling the gizzard, which would help to explain why Canberra source doesn't have any gastroplasty, whereas Bori Allapattah was mostly pastoralist's. Since we do think that a lot of dinosaurs had gizzards, especially with enclosure's, because they didn't really have good teeth for chewing. So if they're just kind of swallowing stuff whole, it'd be nice if you could go into a gizzard, get ground up by those gizzard stones and then move on to the stomach for a little bit more chemical treatment or maybe go back and forth a bunch like happens in some birds similar to Borealis Health.

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Although I went back and reread the Canberra source paper just to be thorough in Kumara Source, about 10 percent of its contents, they think, was plant material, which is pretty similar to the 13 percent that we see in Borealis Palta and in Canberra source. Again, they said it was mostly vascular tissue, which is probably stuff like ground up leaves or otherwise kind of smashed up leaves. So in addition to both of them having a lot of features that make them look individually like they're probably gut contents, they also align with each other.

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So the pair of them sort of support that. You know, it's probably gut contents because otherwise you'd have to have the same coincidence of things being shoved into the abdomen after they died and fossilise just so. Yeah, true.

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Do not like this description of things getting shoved in the abdomen? Not so much.

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So when they were comparing what was inside versus outside of Bori Allapattah, they identified 50 different. Palencia morphs I think is how you say it. And what a Paletta Morph is, is a tough fossil that's microscopic. The maximum size is half a millimetre in the larger dimension. Wow. So yeah, these are really small things. In this case it's pretty much pollen and spores, but they're super useful. They're really useful in general in paleontology, just like those little microfossils of aquatic animals that seem to evolve quickly.

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And then you can use them to sort of date things because there's a lot of evolution happening and they preserve, well, same kind of things with these microfossils of the 50, they could only identify forty two of them to a. Specific tax. It's pretty good. Yeah, I was pretty impressed, and I think one of them got named based on this finding at one point as well. Twenty eight of them are ferns and things that are pretty similar looking called Club Moss'.

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Many of those were found inside Borislow Paltos Gutte. So again, these of these 50, this is 50 that were both inside and outside of Borallon. Palta because when you don't selectively eat pollen and spores, really, so you'd expect to see a lot of it distributed everywhere. It's more of just an idea about what's in the environment. There were 12 conifers and again, that's things like pines and redwood trees, despite there being less than half as many types of pollen of conifers versus ferns, they made up most of the external sample in terms of the quantity.

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So the fact that there were only traces of conifer plant material inside boreal Paltos gut versus there being a large amount of it outside of gut helps to show that it wasn't just things getting washed in because we would have expected to see way more conifer inside Borealis Apelt if that was the case. And then last but not least, there were two, maybe three angiosperms, which are plants with flowers and our fruit. There wasn't really any in the gut contents.

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There's maybe a little trace of it based on some unidentified leaves. But this is Early Albian, which is about one hundred and ten million years ago. So we don't think angiosperms were really widely distributed at that point. So it's not too surprising that there weren't many angiosperms. The paper includes some really cool pictures there, not like leaf pressings. Like I said, the leaves are in cross section if they're identifiable at all. So you can kind of see a little bit of that spongy leaf tissue at least once under a microscope.

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But most of the spores and other tiny stuff looks pretty cool. It's hard for me to make any sense of it, but it's got all sorts of different spikes and patterns and things. So people that know what they're looking at can identify this and say, oh, that's this type of fern or club moss or whatever. There is one really cool twig with growth rings, though. That's a couple of millimeters wide. So you can actually see, even though it's only a couple millimetres across, it's at least two years old.

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So it's a one slow growing twig. And under a microscope, the twig looks enormous because these are little tiny sections are looking at trying to find details of pollen inside it. I also feel like I should mention previously it's been reported that there's a potentially Pisgah virus, meaning fish eating and Kylah in China. And so I was kind of hoping to see some fish bones or something in this guy, but it looks like it was in a forest or maybe it just wasn't near fish.

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We don't know if it's this individual specifically went after ferns and these types of foods or if it just happened to be going after an opportunity that came up. And the same for the cows or in China, it just goes after whatever opportunity strikes. And that's what this individual came across, because really we're just looking at a snapshot of time in one individual. We're not looking at all Borealis Palta and not even all of this Boreal Paltos diet over the course of a year.

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So it's really hard to draw any conclusions outside of just this is what it was eating that day. Yes. And just want to mention, could be a guy or gal. We don't know the gender. True.

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Yeah, I always think of it as male because the species name is Mark Mitchell. I do the preparator kind of like Sue the T-Rex. I always think of this for you female because it's named after Sue Henderson, who found it. But really. Yeah, that's not true. Good point. One really cool thing about this paper, though, is I think it's a great opportunity for paleo art. Unfortunately, there wasn't any included with the paper, but we know so much about it now.

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We know it was snacking on ferns in a recently burnt conifer forest. Again, six percent of its gut contents had burnt wood versus only four percent for non burnt wood. So even if it was trying to eat burnt wood, there was a lot of burnt wood.

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Yeah, there was a lot available. And we also know that ferns often pop up first after a fire. So when a forest burns down, ferns are kind of a disaster taxa. You can think of them, they're really going to just springing up on little to no notice and taking over the place, at least briefly, before other trees and stuff can regrow. And in this case, it looks like Borealis Peltier was ready and waiting. And once all those friends popped up, it was go time and got in there and started snacking away.

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Apparently, moose and other herbivores do this today when forest burn down and ferns pop up, they get in there and eat a whole bunch of ferns. It's pretty interesting maybe making boreal little like the moose of the Cretaceous.

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Well, we know it probably led to its downfall, though, considering it died shortly after.

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Yeah, I was thinking, too, like you could imagine the scenario where it was recently burned down, possibly making it more susceptible to flooding because you don't you might not have all the route. And the the strength of those trees and plants holding the soil together. So then if there's a strong rain afterwards, could be more susceptible to flooding and then gets washed away and turned upside down. And the rest is history. Exactly. It also made me wonder, like, I wonder if that charcoal and other stuff in the sediment might have led to that especially thick concretion that it was found in that preserved it so well, maybe I don't know.

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They didn't say anything about this, just randomly speculating.

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But one thing they did say that there is scientific support for is what time of year it died. So apparently they think there's good evidence that it died in the late spring to midsummer, which is a pretty specific time range. It is. This is based partly on the lags in that twig that it ate, because you can tell essentially how far through the season it was, because in the winter is when the lag forms. So if you can kind of measure from the most recent leg and see how frequently they're growing, you can kind of estimate what time of year it was.

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And on top of that, there are different types of pollen that are in its guts. And in the surrounding matrix, it helped to identify those 42. Yeah, exactly. Because if you know that there's a certain type of plant which tends to release all its pollen in that late spring midsummer time frame and there's a whole bunch of that pollen present, then that's a good indicator. Good old gut contents that are pretty good. They are, but they're very tricky to identify when it comes to herbivores.

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I think it's a lot easier when it comes to carnivores because you're unlikely to find like a mass of ground up bone and stuff just laying around. Maybe it's easier to identify. That is, if you find that in an animal, it's probably something at a rate, as I wonder, if you find a whole animal in a carnivorous gut content, if you could take that at face value now.

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Yeah, well, we did talk about that small bird, like I think it was an anti or anything from the whole biota or something that seemed like it swallowed a lizard whole face first. Do you remember that one? And then it died after the fact. And it's kind of like inside what looks like it would have been where its esophagus was seems like a pretty good explanation. Yes. Although I recently saw a video of a seagull swallowing a rat hole.

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So, yeah, the seagull swallowing the rat hole is an insane video. Yes. It shows that opportunistic nature of seagulls and why they will eventually inherit the earth or just the capabilities of dinosaurs in general.

[00:23:54]

Yeah, still going after mammals. Today's episode has brought to you by every plate America's best value meal kit, they recently started offering contactless delivery to your doorstep, which is awesome if you're trying to minimize exposure.

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[00:25:19]

So their new discoveries look.

[00:25:21]

Yes, yes. That's why we have this podcast to keep up with the golden age of dinosaurs. So in this book, we have a whole bunch of stories, 50 to be exact, including every major group of dinosaurs from all seven continents. And every short story is from a dinosaur discovery since twenty fourteen. So they're all very new discoveries that aren't in a lot of other books. In addition to those 50 stories, they're also one hundred quick fact sheets about other finds from the last six years.

[00:25:50]

It's available at Bedel. Why 50? The number five zero dinosaur Talley's tales, as in the tales that we're telling about dinosaurs, not the dinosaur tale themselves. You can also get it by joining or upgrading to the Tyrannosaurus level on our Patreon.

[00:26:11]

Our next article is also in an open access journal this month in scientific reports, and it was written by Claire Parata for Briga and others. And in it they describe a new non-store, a pardon, sauropods. MORFE And what does that mean?

[00:26:27]

Well, usually it means that it has arm like front limbs, which is true in this case as well. So it's not a big sauropod, not like Diplodocus kind of thing, where it's all elephant de four legs on the ground, massive weight needs all limbs possible in use to hold itself up Collimore legs. This one looks more like a traditional early dinosaur, you know, bipedal long, short, I mean long front to back short going up. That makes more sense.

[00:27:02]

Yeah, it's named Iris Thesaurus Eminences and Iris Osiris is after the, quote, famous iridescent clouds of Yunnan province, end quote. And Holtz pointed out to the name should be Iraheta saurus because it's iridescent and that's how you land. Is it not an iris resource or a resource or whatever they're going for? I'm just going to call it a resource because I trust holds that that's the correct way to call it. And then Yemen and this is after Yemen County where it was found.

[00:27:36]

You might be able to tell based on this name, that is from China. It's from the fungo formation, which is just a bit southwest of the Loop Funt formation. So if you do fungo source, that's another somewhere, Panama. It's very common everywhere they are.

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It's also a similar age to OneSource. It's about one hundred and ninety five million years old, putting it in the very early Jurassic. So time period, we don't have very well preserved in North America, but it's pretty good down there in southern China of erit iridescence. They found a pretty good part of the maybe front third of the animal. Basically, they got both arms in good detail with most of the bones all the way between the fingertips up through the shoulders.

[00:28:22]

So good front arms, the rest of it is not nearly as good. They did find several neck vertebrae, a couple of back vertebrae, they said over fifty rib fragments, but they didn't show much of that. And I don't know how big these fragments are, so I'm not sure how many ribs that accounts do because you can have one rib broken into fifty pieces and they'd be 50 rib. But ribs aren't all that useful anyway for figuring out what an animal's like.

[00:28:49]

On the other hand, they did find two pieces of the hip, which is more useful, a partial toe bone and some of the upper and lower jaws, including a tooth. Nice. It's always good to get part of the skull when you can. It's about five meters or 16 feet long if you re-created its entire body length. Obviously, those fossils alone are only maybe a metre long, but there's no mention of lag's or any other age markers that I could find in the paper.

[00:29:16]

So you have to take that size with a grain of salt because who knows, maybe it was three years old then I would have gotten five times that big. We just didn't say. But it is pretty small, even for an early saw polymorph sort of that typical, like I said, long lengths head to tail direction, bipedal stance. It's neck isn't particularly long, so it couldn't have gotten its head up that much. Just kind of looks like a sauropod.

[00:29:41]

More generically speaking.

[00:29:46]

The hands, as you'd expect, don't look like they would have been very good feet because they weren't feet yet. Exactly. But they do look like maybe they could pronate a little bit because they had a lot of details from the arms and the wrists. So it looks like maybe they could have rotated a little bit. And pronated, again, is like if you're doing push ups, you have to put your hands in a pronated position. Whereas if you're clapping, that's not pronated.

[00:30:09]

And we talk about how dinosaurs like Velociraptor probably couldn't pronate so they would have had their arms and the clappy flapping if you're a bird sort of dimension, but sort polymorphs for the most part, we can tell from the footprints pronated their hands quite a bit as most quadripolar animals like to get the toes in front is nice. So this one maybe was able to do a little bit of that pronation. The arms look like they reached maybe about halfway to the ground in its standing posture.

[00:30:40]

So again, probably not using its front limbs as feet unless it wanted to really angle downward awkwardly. I mean, I guess we don't have its hind legs. So maybe they could have been really short and completely different than every other early dinosaur we found, but it seems pretty unlikely. So we're going with bipedal the hands, though. It's interesting when you look at them closely, you can see a lot of similarities to the front feet of the later huge sauropods.

[00:31:08]

They've got the really short. Individual fingers, and they've got pretty long claws, just like you see on some of the later sauropods that we think would have been good at, like scratching the ground and stuff. It's really interesting how you can see these connections and they don't look like they would have been very good at grasping anything to speak of. So this wasn't like carnivorous by any stretch, because it's it's not grabbing anything with these short, stocky fingers.

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What was the point as well? Tournament. Yeah, exactly. Interestingly, the one tooth that they have doesn't have any DenTek holes or serrations on it and most others are Pottermore from that time do so it's kind of a weird tooth. There's one other relative it has from the area, though, that also doesn't have tentacles. So it's not super weird. It looks superficially to me, kind of like a camera saurus chisel type tooth. If you're familiar with the type of teeth that compressor's has, it's not like a diplodocus tooth, which is real thin.

[00:32:06]

And Peg, like sort of like a pencil. It's significantly wider. I think they said the length to width ratio is something like two and a half. So it's pretty beefy tooth in there. They couldn't have fit that many in their jaw when they did their phylogenetic. It came out as a relative to moisturise. And mousakas was about 20 million years earlier well back into the Triassic and in Argentina. So it's a little bit weird because this one's way over in China and it's less closely related to the Chinese dinosaurs.

[00:32:38]

But back in the early Jurassic, late Triassic was a lot closer getting between China and South America than it is now. You could pretty much walk all the way there. So I guess it's not too surprising that they're close relatives and Iraheta in its phyla. Genetics is just outside of sauropod of forms. If you're familiar with that group, it's sort of halfway in between the earliest sauropod of morphs and real sauropods. We never really talk about sauropods forms because we just I saw Polymorph.

[00:33:11]

That just includes all of the early stuff. We don't have to worry about it then if it gets reclassified later. But yeah. So this is sort of in the middle. It's considered pretty base, although if it's outside a sort of forms one kind of cool thing about its hands, it had a pretty big claw and it was curved on its first finger. So they said that maybe it was for grasping. I don't know how much I buy that because the finger bones leading up to that claw really don't look like they could've been very much.

[00:33:37]

But maybe it was enough to be able to grasp on to like a tree could hook on to a branch or something. Yeah, that kind of thing. It's not I don't think it's going to be able to grasp as in like picking up anything. And to that end, it had some included paleo art, which shows it sort of using its hands to help it prop itself up on a tree so that it can reach its head up higher because it didn't have the Great Neck of later sauropods.

[00:34:03]

So maybe it used its hands to sort of work its way up the tree a little bit so it could reach some of those tasty tree leaves, tree stars maybe.

[00:34:13]

I mean, almost certainly not, but maybe one can imagine. Yeah. We've got another story out of Morfe now, though.

[00:34:21]

Nice. In other dinosaur news, we heard about some reopenings for museums, so the Field Museum in Chicago is reopening on July 24th and they're taking a lot of precaution. So the number of visitors allowed will be 25 percent of their building's capacity. Visitors will have entry times to go into the museum and everyone over the age of two must wear a mask. Wow. Yes, there will also be hand sanitizers around the building and floor markers to help with social distancing.

[00:34:52]

And they promise to do frequent cleaning to the museum following CDC guidelines and interactive exhibits and exhibits in small spaces are still closed.

[00:35:00]

It's interesting with the masks, I can't imagine trying to put a mask on a three year old. I would not be an easy task if you bribe them with dinosaurs. Maybe, maybe.

[00:35:10]

I wonder if they let in children under two at all. Oh, I didn't see on their guidelines. Yeah. Might have to call and ask. I'd be pretty nervous even going in if it was twenty five percent capacity. It's a lot of people.

[00:35:24]

Yeah. They were looking based on the size of their building. Yeah that's good. Those dinosaur halls are still going to be crowded though you know it.

[00:35:32]

Well that's partly why there's specific entry times that you can go in. Makes sense. In London, the Natural History Museum is reopening on August 5th. Visitors are going to have to buy tickets in advance. You'll also be admitted based on the time of your ticket and everyone over the age of 11 there must wear a mask, is going to be hand sanitizer stations and then signs for social distancing. And they will also be cleaning facilities regularly or in some hands on exhibits and digital will touch screens will be closed.

[00:35:59]

Makes sense. And then last that we heard about recently, anyway, the Royal Saskatchewan Museum has already reopened. Some things, though, like the palace is closed, a maximum of 75 people can enter that museum at any given time. And when you visit, you'll need to provide your contact information in case the museum needs to work with the health authority on any contact tracing. And all visitors over the age of three must wear a mask. They'll also have hand sanitizers available around the museum and visitors will have to stay two metres away from others and follow marked routes through the galleries for social distancing.

[00:36:32]

It's really interesting.

[00:36:33]

Where they draw the line is you've got two year olds and above three year olds and above an 11 year olds and above have to wear a mask.

[00:36:39]

What's three different countries? Yeah, I guess maybe things are a little bit more calm down in the U.K. so they feel like they can not shoot up to 11 year olds and up maybe here. We're not clear on the reasoning behind all of it. I'm glad that they are enforcing masks, though, because it is the number one way to stop the spread of coronavirus so good on them. I definitely will not be going to a dinosaur museum anytime soon, though.

[00:37:03]

I'm scared to even just thinking about it like there are seventy five people in there with you and you have to sign up just in case you might have caught it. Yeah, I think if I actually psyched myself up enough to get there and then they said sign this in case somebody in here has coronavirus and we need to tell you about it, I'd be like, OK, I'm going home.

[00:37:24]

Well, I don't think any museums near us are reopening.

[00:37:28]

No, no, California is not ready.

[00:37:31]

So Chicago, just a little out of reach for us right now. It's true. In New Jersey, field station Dinosaurs is teaching kids about social distancing and wearing masks. And part of it is they put masks on all their dinosaurs.

[00:37:43]

That's a pretty good one because I was fully outdoors. Field may be OK with that. Still probably not six feet away. Yeah, yeah. It's hard when you get excited about dinosaurs to stay six feet away.

[00:37:57]

In other news, on August 6th in Langley, British Columbia, in Canada, there's going to be an animatronic dinosaur and fossil auction and that will include more than 50 animatronic dinosaurs and other animatronic equipment, as well as hundreds of fossils. And the dinosaurs include T. Rex, Brontosaurus, Triceratops, Velociraptor, a Tyrannosaurus Centrosaurus, tell officers and a source. And on the fossil side, was Marsar to be a good one? Yes.

[00:38:23]

And on the fossil side, there would be fossilized eggs, trilobites and leaves. And this whole action came about because a Canadian subsidiary of a firm went bankrupt. I'm not sure which firm. So that's who you have to thank if you end up buying one of these or not.

[00:38:40]

Think if you liked going there before people can see all the items on display on August 5th, as long as you're wearing masks in person, there's going to be no minimum bids. And the auction will take place online only starting at nine thirty a.m. Pacific Time. Whatever you buy, though, you will need to transport yourself. So think about that. When the bidding, according to Aldergrove Star, which wrote about this quote, The designs appear similar to those created by a Chinese company called Guangyu Longtown Science and Technology.

[00:39:16]

And and that's one of the largest of more than two dozen companies in Sichuan, China, that makes dinosaur replicas. So you could compare the price of a new one and have your starting point for what you pay for a used one, I guess, or you go much lower and see what you can get away with. That's true. Yeah.

[00:39:33]

One of our listeners, I think, mentioned this to us. And if we needed any and I was thinking, well, maybe for our front yard we could we have to take something out there. We don't have the space there.

[00:39:41]

We don't have our tomato sauce, at least not for any of the books we get for the dill officers out there, maybe for sure.

[00:39:50]

How would we even get it here? That's the problem. That would probably cost more than whatever we end up bidding.

[00:39:55]

Yes, definitely immediate news.

[00:39:59]

The Hulu platform, which unfortunately I think you can only watch in the U.S., but they have a new movie called Palm Springs. This was trending on Twitter a little bit. It's a time loop romantic comedy. It stars Andy Samberg and Kristen Melody and it's got some dinosaurs in it. And Gary and I watched it. There are two scenes with dinosaurs. These are potential spoilers. If you want to watch the movie first and come back and listen to this, I'm really, though, where it doesn't really have anything to do with the story.

[00:40:32]

But in one of the scenes, the characters are in the desert and they see some dinosaurs. And it's unclear if they hallucinate them or if the dinosaurs are real. And there's some weird time loop stuff happening and they're near. One of the explanations is that the characters are near the dinosaurs that are featured in Pee wee's Big Adventure. So maybe they saw those sculptures before and that's why they could have hallucinated them. Interesting. I'm surprised you just call them dinosaurs because they were definitely sauropods.

[00:41:01]

That's true. Where sauropods.

[00:41:03]

Well, they're like weirdly the distance. And it has nothing to do with the plot of the movie. You can pretty weird. You can barely see them. It's a pretty good movie, though. I liked it.

[00:41:12]

So the writer of the movie, Andy Sciarra, made some comments about this because a lot of people were talking about it. And he wrote, I could say that you have two characters who don't believe they're capable of love. And in that moment, maybe they fall in love. Dinosaurs don't exist, but in that moment they exist. It's two things that are impossible. Or I can also just say that I love Jurassic Park and I wanted to put that in there.

[00:41:34]

It felt right in that moment. How do we make this scene stand out more? What better way than to add dinosaurs?

[00:41:41]

We do see more dinosaurs just being added to the scenes that make no sense. Yeah, the.

[00:41:47]

Good choice, it was a fun movie, but you can't explain the dinosaurs. No, and don't watch it thinking you're going to see some dinosaurs because you barely do.

[00:41:55]

Yeah, yeah. It's not for the dinosaurs in Jurassic World Dementia News. Sam Neill, who's returning is Dr. Alan Grant, has said that there will be screaming. He said in a recent interview, quote, I can't give anything away, but a real dinosaur is a compelling thing to someone who's devoted his life to them. There will be screaming, we know this and quote, It was a little confused by that because the reason Dr. Alan Grant went to Jurassic Park in the first place was because he was someone who has devoted his life to dinosaurs.

[00:42:24]

But I guess it sucks him back in because of that. Or he has no choice because the dinosaurs everywhere. That's true. And so Dr. Ellie Sattler and Ian Malcolm will have large, not cameo roles in the movie.

[00:42:36]

Who the most important one there is? Jeff Goldblum. Yes. Ian Malcolm, you need more Jeff Goldblum. Maybe they'll reenact their mean get him shirtless and wounded here. In-game news.

[00:42:52]

There's a trailer for a new game called Death Ground where you need to outsmart dinosaurs and you can play this game solo or co-op. It's a survival horror game with A.I. dinosaurs. So it sounds a lot like Jurassic Park, but with A.I. to me, the game is set to go out early access in 2021 and they'll be fully released in 2020. It's got a ways to go. Interesting. Mm hmm. And last, for people who like dinosaurs and baking, the Guardians shared a Spanish Bernt Basque cheesecake recipe decorated with dinosaur cookies, though the recipe says you can also use dinosaur figurines.

[00:43:27]

But why would you do that? You're going to decorate with dinosaurs anyway. So for the dinosaur cookies or biscuits part, it recommends making ginger biscuits and shape them with dinosaur cookie cutters. So there's not actually a lot of info on the dinosaur part, but it still sounds delicious and the picture is really pretty. I say make it look volcanic and the dinosaurs are sitting precariously on top. People love mixing volcanoes and dinosaurs. I think it's because of the old extinction theories, but it makes about as much sense as putting a bunch of humans around a volcano and it's cheesecake and cogie.

[00:44:00]

So, yeah, I guess it's harder to make a cake look like a crater or an impactor coming down. Yes, maybe you could have it like a MIDA impact of like a big bulbous bump and put some dents in it and make it like the impactor hitting.

[00:44:17]

You could have a cake smashing party where the dinosaurs are on top of the cake and then you just smash it with your hand. And that's the crater.

[00:44:25]

I was expecting you to say smash it into my face.

[00:44:30]

I know you like to do that.

[00:44:32]

Well, when you let me. Which was only at our wedding. Yeah, that's true.

[00:44:42]

And now onto our Dinosaur of the Day, Krypto Saurus, which was a request from Takia Taimur via our discordance Petrea so thanks. Krypto source was and Enclosure saw that lived in the late Jurassic and what is now England and the Anthill Clay formation in Cambridgeshire. The dubious genius, because it's only known from a partial femur. This femur, though, it's really thick and stout. It's about 13 inches or three centimetres long, and the femur belonging to either a subadult or an adult krypto saurus was herbivorous.

[00:45:11]

And the type and only species is krypto saurus humerus. The genus name means hidden lizard. And it refers to it being a rare find because it was the first one found in the Oxford clay formation, even though later it was determined to be from Amchok formation. But that's a story we'll get into in a minute. The species name means well-formed thig in Greek. So they found a partial right femur in 1869, the early days of finding dinosaur bones.

[00:45:41]

It was found by geologist Lucas' Ewbank, who donated it to the Wood Wardian Museum at Cambridge. Harry SeeWhy, then named Krypto Saurus in 1869 and Ceres description was very brief. I'll read the whole thing. It was, quote, on a shelf. G is temporarily placed the femur of a dinosaur from the Oxford Krypto source, humorous and quote, That's quite the description.

[00:46:06]

So useful right before we had standards for these things.

[00:46:10]

Well, he did give a full description in 1875, so it took him six years to see.

[00:46:16]

We thought that Krypto source was an animal, quote, of sluggish habits and that it may have been cold blooded as we used to think that dinosaurs were cold blooded. He also thought the Krypto source was related to Iguanodon. Again, not many dinosaurs found at this point. And then later in 1989, Frederic von Hune classified Krypto source as camp disordered. And then in 1980, Peter Galton found Krypto source to be an enclosure twist.

[00:46:41]

Yep. So I had to quickly go over the name Krypto Saurus Richard Lydecker, renamed Krypto Source in 1889 to Krypto Draco because he thought that Krypto Saurus was already used to name a crocodile farm in 1832. And by the scientific rules, the first name has to be the one that stays. But it turns out that this was an error and due to the wrong spelling, the crocodile farm was actually cesta saurus instead of Krypto source. So the name of Jesus was actually free to name the dinosaur after.

[00:47:15]

For some reason, Lydecker said that it was unknown where this femur was found, even though Seelie described the locality The Ox for Clay in his one sentence description. Anyway, Galton found the femur of Krypto saurus, although at the time it was still being called Creped D'Errico, very similar to the femur of Hoplite Esau's, and he wrote that the name Krypto Draco's Krypto Saurus, because that both names were used in his paper, has turned out to be extremely appropriate because it took over one hundred and ten years for the entire saurian affinities of this femur to be recognised, unquote.

[00:47:51]

We don't know what it's called and we also don't know what it's from. What Gulfton figured it out and Kyla's or so Galton wrote, that the femur was found with seventeen associated plesiosaurs, vertebrae and therefore the femur, quote, must have come from a brick pit rather than as an isolated bone from a conglomerate. And that's how they determined that Krypto source actually came from the Anthill claim formation and not the Oxford for Clay. Is that what made it a dubious genus that we don't know where it came from?

[00:48:20]

No, we're pretty sure it's the hill clay formation now. I don't know what he was doing, but it's dubious because it's only known from a partial femur.

[00:48:29]

So it's just not enough because we have lots of other. Or that it could be, yes.

[00:48:34]

So Galton suggests the ancestors of Krypto source were probably bipedal or the pods, but that Krypto source may have been facultative bipedal. So normally it watch on all fours, but then it could go in the legs when necessary.

[00:48:47]

It's pretty weird for Ant Kyla's or there's a lot of weird things about this dinosaur. We need more fossils. Yeah. Or just to forget about it because it's not a good enough to find to be particularly useful where you want to forget about it in Kile's or but it might not even be entangles or let's be real partial femur.

[00:49:08]

But speaking of an Callista's, our fun fact comes from our earlier Borealis Peltzer paper in know, they mention that for about one hundred and forty million years, essentially at least all of the Jurassic and the Cretaceous, every single terrestrial mega herbivore on Earth was a dinosaur. Wow. So completely dominated by dinosaurs. The opposite of today. Yes.

[00:49:32]

And apparently for the last 40 million years, mammals have been the dominant terrestrial mega herbivores, maybe just mega herbivores in general. But I'm always a little bit suspicious that there's something in the ocean that I'm not including that counts as a mega herbivore that might not be a mammal. Within Dinosauria, though, mega herbivores evolved at least five times. So there's sauropod, a morpho, which evolved in the Triassic. We were talking about that earlier. There's a theory of Faura, which is the stegosaurus.

[00:50:03]

And Kyla's are a group that evolved in the Triassic or Jurassic. And I guess maybe more than once there's Iguanodon tya which evolved in the Jurassic. There's Sarah Topsiders, which evolved in the Cretaceous, of course, that things like Triceratops there is dinosauria, the weirdest of all, which evolved in the Cretaceous from meat eating dinosaurs into a mega herbivore, of course, basically mega mega carnivore into mega herbivores. Typical transition, just like you'd expect from there is a source.

[00:50:37]

So that's the five that they included. But I thought maybe they would include hadrosaur a day. I'm thinking maybe they didn't because I guess it could have shared a mega herbivore ancestor with Iguanodon. Tya maybe is where they're going with that. It seems like there's at least six though. It's a lot of mega herbivores going on and dinosauria I guess, and a lot of plants to eat and in some cases also a lot of gastroplasty to swallow. Yeah.

[00:51:01]

And wood and charcoal, whatever they could fit into their mouths. Yeah. Sometimes crustaceans. And on that note, that wraps up this episode of A.I.M.. Thanks for listening. Don't forget to subscribe to us on your favourite podcast app and consider joining our community at Patriae Intercoms A.M.. Thanks again.

[00:51:21]

And until next time to me.