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If you want to catch up on some of the dinosaur discoveries from the past five years, check out our book, 50 Dinosaur Tales at Why Slash 50 Dinosaur Tales. And that's Talley's. Hello and welcome to I Know, Dana, I'm Garrett, and I'm Sabrina. And today in our two hundred and ninety sixth episode, we have a bunch of news, including in Kyle, Our Brains and more details about to officers from a pretty good review paper. And we have Dinosaur of the Day, Damiana a Saurus.

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But before we get into all of that, we'd like to thank some of our patrons. This week we have a brand new and clotheshorse patron, and that's Dego Steve. Nice alliteration. Yeah, it's a good name and are drawing winners for the rest of the shout outs are Trent Carbajal, Nilo Venator, Daniel McGill, Greg Verus a raptor rhinoceros. James Pasko, Christine and Paul Acanthus.

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Yeah, thank you so much, everybody. We really appreciate all of your support and being able to chat with you. And our discord and sharing on our Patreon and watching movies together has been really great. We love this community. So if you want to join, then check out our page at Patriot Dot Eino Dinu.

[00:01:25]

So before we get into the news, we have a quick update from a previous news article, which is sort of a piece of news in and of itself, which is a retraction which was posted by nature. It's a retraction of the report of Akilu dentifrice or Akallo dentifrice, alternatively, which we reported back in episode two hundred and eighty. It's the quote unquote hummingbird sized dinosaur. And at the time when we reported it, we mentioned that there were several people that thought it looked more like an early gecko relative than a dinosaur.

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And we mentioned that there is a little bit of controversy. And I think we even said we think it looks a little bit more like a gecko. That dinosaur and its name, Akilu Dentifrice combines eye, teeth and bird. So obviously they thought that it was a dinosaur because as bird in the name, as a lot of those bird like dinosaurs do. But the reason that a combined eye and tooth, as a quick reminder is because it had unusually large eyes and the teeth were much farther back in the jaw than you see in dinosaurs.

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So there was only one other dinosaur. I think it was Dawna's, which is kind of a weird dinosaur in and of itself that had a tooth below its eye. Usually they stop far farther forward in the snout, basically, but this one had them going way back several teeth behind where the eye socket was, which is more like something you see in other lizard type reptiles or squamous or things like geckos. So it did seem at the time that maybe the simplest explanation was that this was more of a gecko type lizard than a dinosaur.

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But it's still a little bit unclear if that's the way that the researchers are heading, because in their official retraction, it's just two sentences long. They said we, the authors, are retracting this article to prevent inaccurate information from remaining in the literature.

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Although the description of ocular dentists remains accurate, a new unpublished specimen casts doubt upon our hypothesis regarding the phylogenetic position of 15 dash three. So there's only been speculation that I've seen online about what this unpublished specimen that they're referring to may be and why it's casting so much doubt on it. I think there's probably enough evidence just in the piece that they published on that skull that looks like it might not be a dinosaur skull alone. That maybe is a good enough reason to not have a file genetically in Dinosauria.

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But we'll have to wait and see what this unpublished specimen that they're referring to is. And in addition to that, they're probably wanting to retract the name ocular dentists because they were calling it HPG 15, Dasch three, which is the collection name. So they're not even saying regarding the phylogenetic position of ocular dentists, they're going back to the name of just the specimen. So I'm expecting to see a new name for this dinosaur. Again, not a dinosaur in the future.

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Could be a while, though. Yeah. And another thing, there was some speculation as well that maybe it got retracted because there was a backlash against using Burmese Ambre. We talked about it at the time and how this is in a war torn area. And there's been a lot of pushback on researching it at all, as has said that they don't think people should be researching this, Amber, because they're just human rights issues at stake. But based on their statement, it doesn't sound like that's why they retracted it.

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I am curious, though, if maybe some of the researchers that might have been able to shed some light on this being a gecko like squid weren't willing to review this paper because of that controversy and maybe that led to some of this misunderstanding in the first place. It's hard to say. It's all speculation at this point. Yeah, we just know it's retracted. So occlude into this is no more still as a Wikipedia entry, but officially it's 15 dash three until it gets a real name again.

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So jumping into the new news, the first article is the new review of DeLay officers and a description based on five really good finds of Dille officers. It was written by Adam Marsh and Timothy Rowe and published in GVP. I don't think Adam Marsh is related to Charles Marsh, but I'm not sure about that. It'd be a fun coincidence if you would be also several generations.

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I didn't notice it until I was reading some articles about this and they would say, like Marsh, said Marsh, how was he involved with this? Oh, wait, that's that's the lead author's name. Where's Coop? Yeah, exactly. What a koplik. So in this article, I think what it is is Marcia's thesis while getting his PhD and then the other author is his advisor, I believe. And the paper really gets deep into the officers.

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It includes a description of the type as well as some previously undescribed specimens and then some well known ones that are quite complete already. Nice. Yeah. So as a quick reminder to all officers, was about 20 feet or six meters long. Some places say twenty three feet or seven meters, and it didn't have a frill or spit venom like it did in Jurassic Park. That hypothesis seems to have sort of come from the idea that maybe the officers had a weak bite, so maybe it relied on poison or something as a way to eat.

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But anyway, there's no evidence of that. It was much larger, but didn't have a frill or venom that we know of. It is technically, theoretically possible that it had it. But usually in science, you want to base things on evidence and there's no evidence of it. So we're going to say it doesn't have that. It was, however, the largest predator in the early Jurassic of North America. And when I say early Jurassic, I mean really early Jurassic.

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This is like one hundred and ninety five million years ago, like just a couple of million years after the Triassic ended, there's only one named species, which is whether Allai and the species was named in nineteen fifty four after a Navajo counselor, but it was included in the genus Megalo Saurus was doing that whole wastebasket taxand thing that we've talked about before, because there are lots of things that have been thrown into megalo sauce over the years. But in 1970 the genus still officers was coined and it became to officers whether ALLAI the first important detail of this new paper is that they support dille officers, whether illi being the single species of Delaware saurus.

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So they looked at all these different individuals and they didn't see any reason to split out a new species. So big review papers like this often end with like we have a new Dolphus or a species or we've got a new genus that they're splitting off from the officers. But in this case, it looks really similar. There's not a lot of variability between the individuals.

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So they support it being just one species. I think there have been a couple of papers that maybe thought there should be some splitting happening, but I couldn't find any other names being suggested. So I think that was pretty early phases of hypothesising. They emphasized that even in different geological layers, it appears that the species is very similar as well. So it's not like Torosaurus and Triceratops where the argument can be in these lower levels. You have one species and in the higher levels you have a different species because there are a million or two years apart, even if they are a couple of million years apart until officers case, they all look like the same species, which is pretty cool.

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Phyll genetically tilapia source sits in an early neoh theropod, but not as a Saradha or cee lo fi zoid. So basically what that means is it's a really early dinosaur that is weird and doesn't fit into most of the other groups that we've named. Its closest relatives that came out in their analysis was Krail officers, which was from the same time it was about the same size, but it was in Antarctica and it had a crest at the back of its head kind of going perpendicular to the length of the snout, whereas Dolf source obviously has those two Kresse running down the snout.

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So overall, it's kind of similar. You could see why they'd be related, but the other one's a little weirder. Zoop Saurus is the other one that came out as the closest relative. That one is 10 to 20 million years earlier, which puts it pretty firmly in the late Triassic. It's also significantly smaller at maybe half the size of Dille officers. And it's way down in Argentina with much smaller Kresse, if any, modern skull. So this one's quite a bit different.

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It's interesting. Yeah, although late Triassic, it makes sense that it's smaller. Yeah, very true. We also have a couple of new details about its head Kresse that came out in their paper. They talk about how they were er filled similar to modern horned bells, which is it's interesting looking at these different pictures of birds. They didn't think about it, but they have this big, like, air filled thing on top of. Bill, at least some speeches and tell officers really looks pretty similar to that in these reconstructions, like a toucan.

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Yeah, the other thing they compare it to as a cassowary with the casket on top of its head, but kind of a pair of them running down the side of DEL officers snout instead. The crests at this point are still probably most likely for a species recognition. They don't seem to have any other specific uses, at least that we've discovered so far. And they stretch from nearly the tip of the snout to behind the eye. So they're very long covering quite a bit of the head and they call them nasal lacrimal.

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Cress is the official name for them. If you want to sound smart at a party, you can talk about the officers and it's a nasal lacrimal crest. All right.

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They're called that because it goes over the nasal bone and lacrimal bones. So that was yeah, that was going to be my guess. Yeah. But see, this coming up too often at parties, though. It will if I'm there.

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It's kind of interesting that it covers both of those bones because in a lot of dinosaurs, the crest don't cover lots of different bones in the head. They just kind of sit over just one, like I say, just over the nasal or something. So, yeah, it's a pretty special crest that Del officers have. It's also presented with a very impressive height in the paleo art. The authors say the crest, quote, were almost certainly covered with keratin or fraternized skin and quote, and as we've talked about before, a lot of times one of the benefits to having keratin over bony tissue is you can make it stick out more because it's kind of like a fingernail growing over it.

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So you can really emphasize those big, tall officer frills on your snout by growing up that big fingernail type structure, higher guards doing a lot of really great hand gestures to go with this sort of like a Mohawk. So what I'm imagining, like pushing my hair up into a Mohawk Foods, basically what the officers was doing with the keratin going around the bone or basically what cassowaries do today. You see that keratin going up on their cask as well.

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In other parts of the body, they found that the rest of the skeleton had a lot of pneumatically, as well as indicating that it had big air sacs. This means that there were birdlike respiratory systems way back at least one hundred and ninety five million years ago with the officers, which is pretty cool. And the air pockets didn't seem to weaken the bone significantly based on their structure. It seems like they had that kind of honeycomb like feature to them.

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So the same kind of advantages we talk about with modern bird bones and how they're still pretty strong, even though they are very lightweight. They also had good grasping abilities with four fingers on each hand. So they would have been a pretty fearsome Grassby predator. And Brian Enger has a few posts on his Patreon based on this research as well. There's a really great puppet he made for the St. George Dinosaur Discovery site in Utah, and they made a video where it's like walking in the sand and you can see its head with this big, amazing crests and everything.

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And there's also an upcoming exhibit for the Las Vegas Natural History Museum, which incorporates these extra large crests and other features based on this new research. So if you're either in Utah or Nevada and you're able to go to museums when you hear this, yeah, you might be able to check out some of these new depictions.

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And we haven't been to St George dinosaur discovery site yet, but we have been to Las Vegas Natural History Museum, and that's a pretty fun one.

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Yeah, it is cool. It's my preferred type of museum because it's kind of hole in the wall style where when you go in, you often have the place to yourself, or at least we did when we went. And I think we went on a weekend too. It wasn't like a very it wasn't that unusual of a time to go. Right. But there's always so much going on in Vegas.

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There is. It's I think it's even on the strip, but it's like down the road a little bit. Oh, I thought I was away from the strip. We had to take a taxi or I think that was pretty close, though.

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It wasn't that far away when we were there, they had an Archaeopteryx exhibit, which was pretty cool.

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Remember, our driver was surprised that we were going to this museum. Yes.

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It was a little bit worried about getting a taxi back.

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So if it happens, though, when we go somewhere and we end up visiting the Natural History Museum, yes, it was easier in Las Vegas than it was in Japan, for sure.

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Yeah. Oh, I meant people being surprised that that's where we're going. Oh, yes. And as promised, we also have a new study on the brain of an enclosure. So this new study is of two complete bisected palta, quote unquote, no cranial casts. Hmm. And it was written by Yvonne Koosman and others and published in Biological Communications. And Bisek to Palta, if you're not familiar, is a late Cretaceous and Kyla Sorehead, which was found in Uzbekistan.

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In this case, the window cranial case include more than just the brain. They also include the inner ear and a whole bunch of blood vessels from all over the place. Yeah, it's really cool. So the model looks really interesting. Basically, you've got the typical brain shape, which, if you're not familiar with bird brains, are not shaped like ours, which are kind of boring and just kind of oblong shape. They have big bulges sticking off the front and the sides in the back and stuff depending on which senses they have heightened.

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They tend to have a big bump coming out of the front for smell as well. If it's an animal, they can smell really well, which was the case with this ankylosing. And then the blood vessels all around it are really cool because especially on the top, it reminds me of one of those like Bird's Nest style egg noodle dish things. There's just like a crazy mess of these blood vessels sitting on top of the brain. And because it's on top of the brain, it would have been nearer to the skin on top of the head, which would have been useful to prevent the brain from overheating.

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Because I think we've mentioned before that and Kyle has had a ton of armor all over its body and it had a very thick bone and stuff like that. So in order to keep its brain from overheating, it had to have like these radiator style blood vessels that could get blood near to the surface. So the brain didn't overheat because apparently that's a bad thing to happen.

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It could have also been used for warming up as well. So if I say it's cold out, but it goes into the sun and its skin starts to warm up, it could pump some blood up there in order to heat up its brain. The researchers describe the blood vessels as being able to flow in different directions, describing them as a system of railway tracks that can redistribute blood as needed, which I think is really fun. They also say that it allowed for precise temperature control and the exact arrangement of the blood vessels is a little bit more like modern lizards than modern birds or crocodiles.

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So they argued that maybe this is like an ancestral trait going way back the dinosaurs had, but then later got lost as they evolved into birds. Who knows? Maybe because birds are smaller and less armored. So they didn't need these kinds of things. It reminded me a lot of holiday at all. Paper showing the dorsal temporal fossa that we talked about a while back. They especially talked about them on Casaus, like to split hairs and T Rex braining also.

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Is it featuring quite a bit in this episode, had some cool art showing a sort of thermal image version of these dinosaurs using this series of blood vessels on top of the head in a similar way, maybe while basking in order to warm up, and then they could use that if they needed a bunch of energy. Having warm blood is helpful. So it's the same kind of idea. But in this case, with any kind of source as far as bisecting Delta is concerned, in particular, the parts of the brain that are dedicated to smell are very big.

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So it probably had a really good sense of smell. Maybe it was good for finding wildfires or tasty plants like we were talking about last week. And it also reminded me of Spike from land before time because Stegosaurus are closely related to Ankylosing and they showed him sniffing a lot. I don't know if you remember, it was like always smelling leaves in like finding them and stuff. Oh, I remember him eating everything he did there too, but he had a sniff him.

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And I guess if you had a really good sense of smell, maybe you could smell some leaves from a distance. I'm not sure. One last thing that they were able to tell specifically about the sector, Palta, is that it had an inner ear with a hearing range of between one hundred and three thousand hertz. It's quite a range. Well, it's a lot less than our range. Our range is more like one hundred to twenty thousand hertz. But humans have a remarkable sense of hearing compared to most animals or at least a range of hearing, maybe not necessarily acuity.

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But one thing that it means is that these dinosaurs probably vocalised in that range because animals typically hear in the same range that they make sounds in, obviously, because if you're trying to listen to other animals of your species, you need to be able to hear the noises they're making. So it gives us an idea of what kind of frequencies they were making, noises that it's not too surprising because they're pretty big. So lower pitch is generally what you expect.

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Bigger animals tend to make lower pitch sounds, and in this case, that frequency range of one hundred to three thousand hertz is pretty similar. Or to a modern crocodile, so maybe some of those creepy blow crawly booming noises that crocodiles make is sort of in the range of 110 kilos cause we're doing that be interesting.

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If it turned out that herbivorous dinosaurs like unclosed or sounding more like crocodiles and then the carnivores like T-Rex and more like a bird.

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I think most people think the large carnivores probably also are deep, but it would be hilarious of T. Rex was like chirping. Yeah, it'd be cool if we could find a syrinx or one of their vocalizing organs fossilized so we could try to do some analysis of it being the closest we've ever done is maybe Paracelsus with the resonating chamber. But there's a lot of speculation there because it's not a lot of soft tissue that got preserved. But hopefully someday there's always more fossils and preserved things to find.

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Yeah, I mean, I'm sure one hundred years ago they would have been amazed that we could figure out the frequencies that they could hear. So who knows how long it'll be until we figure out the frequencies that they made in any kind of tissue that's been found.

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Yeah, many blood vessels indeed, especially with CT scans. I didn't even have to cut it open to find them. In other news, so according to NPR, about a third of the museums in the U.S. may permanently close this year. No, that's based on a survey of seven hundred and sixty museum directors who said that there's a, quote unquote, significant risk of closing permanently by next fall. Well, that's terrible. However, many of those museums, it said, will have reopened by the end of July and many of them provided educational resources to students who are closed.

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So that's good. And I should say there's a significant risk. That doesn't mean that they definitely will close. But the problem is that museums get most of their funding from ticket and gift shop sales and school trips and museum events, which is obviously hard to do right now.

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Yeah, especially the thing about field trips. If if schools are closed, there aren't any field trips happening. Mm hmm.

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And then nobody to buy the dinosaurs in the gift shops. So we got to go to more gift shops.

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Well, I need to update my wardrobe with some more dinosaur T-shirts, so we'll see.

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It sounds like a lot of it's up in the air and there's a lot of planning going on, but hopefully that turns out to not be the case.

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I know a lot of museums do get government funding as well, like if it's a state museum or affiliated with the university or things like that, those might be in better shape.

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So that was part of what this article was talking about, is that a lot of people think that they get a lot of funding from the government, but they end up getting most of it through ticket sales and school trips and events and things like that. Well, hopefully they can bounce back. Yes, but on the bright side, in Dinosaur, Colorado, visitors can now sign up for time tickets at the Corie exhibit hall at Dinosaur National Monument. Nice tickets cost a whole dollar plus parking.

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Why is it so cheap? Maybe because it's public. I don't really know. But other parts of the monument are open. They're accessible without tickets. And that's if you want a raft or hike or camp or drive or stargaze. But since the exhibit hall is kind of indoors or maybe it was all indoors, I can't remember exactly. It's all indoors. It's all indoors, OK. Yeah. Then that's why you need the time tickets so that you have a certain number of people in there at a time.

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I guess indoors is kind of a it's more of like inline to than indoors because the one entire side of it is exposed rock and then there's a roof and three walls that go with it and maybe a floor sort of. But there is quite a bit of air space in there. And I know that's the main concern right now. One of the coolest dinosaur sites there is, though. Oh, yeah. Definitely recommend going. If you ever get a chance in St.

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Paul, Minnesota, there's going to be a dinosaur adventure drive through for two weekends. So this weekend, July 31st, through next weekend, August 9th or so, you can drive through and see T Rex, Brachiosaurus, Triceratops, Velociraptor, Stegosaurus, and then you fall along with a custom audio guide. And dinosaur trainers are also there to bring out baby dinosaurs to your car. Nice little puppets, I'm assuming. Probably. We've got some Jurassic World News, so Bryce Dallas Howard shared some photos on Twitter, she's gotten some bruises already doing stunt work for Jurassic World Dominion.

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Wow. She wrote Raise Your Hands if you're happy to be doing stunts again. And bruises are so large. So she's holding up her hand but covered in bruises and she's holding up both hands.

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You see bruises on her arms and shoulders and but she's happy about it. Apparently she is. Yeah. I think it's probably a pretty exhilarating doing your own stunts. I think I would sign up for it even if I got some bruises. Yeah, I'm kind of surprised, though, because a lot of times they don't let stars do their own stunts since it's risky. I know Chris Pratt did a lot of the stunts in Jurassic World Fallen Kingdom because there was that behind the scenes.

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And Bryce Dallas Howard, she was writing the T-Rex.

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Oh, yeah, that's right. That was a pretty good one. Yeah, it probably feels good, too, when you see the final movie with all the effects and everything. And, you know, I did that stunt. Yeah. That's not just a stunt double pretending you get credit for all the good stuff.

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Exactly. In other Jurassic World Rezac Park news in August, the Jurassic Park trilogy is coming back to Netflix, I couldn't find out too many details if this is a U.S. only thing or you can access it from any country.

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I think it's still available in Canada or maybe the U.K. I can't remember. But I remember seeing recently that it was still available somewhere that the US than it's been in the U.S. before in the past.

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It just keeps bouncing around, I guess is different rights.

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Yeah, the hands well, hopefully it sticks around for a long time and it's in multiple countries. Yeah. And then last, the trailer for Jurassic World, Camp Cretaceous is out, that's also going to be on Netflix and we talked about this before. It's going to be about a group of teens. They go to a dinosaur camp. And, of course, life finds a way dinosaurs escape and now the teens have to find a way to survive.

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The animation looks pretty fun. It'll be interesting to see how they combine kids, show style children animations with dinosaurs, eating people who wonder how kid friendly it'll be.

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It looked like it was stylized and the kid friendly way, but I don't know.

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Well, the main characters are teens, so maybe older kids. And I imagine you can get a lot more creative with the dinosaurs. Yeah. And what's going on as opposed? All the Jurassic Park movies are PG 13, so maybe that still works. I saw Jurassic Park when I was seven. I was scared, but I watched it as it is dinosaurs. So that does happen. Well, we'll be keeping an eye out for when that comes to Netflix.

[00:27:13]

Today's episode has brought to you by every plate America's best value meal kit, they recently started offering contactless delivery to your doorstep, which is awesome if you're trying to minimize exposure.

[00:27:25]

Yeah, it also does the meal planning and the shopping for you comes with recipes and all the ingredients you need for the recipes. So it takes a lot of the guesswork out of it and cuts down a lot of time for cooking.

[00:27:36]

It's also incredibly affordable, even at regular price. Every plate is up to 50 percent cheaper than other major meal kits out there and their food is really good. My favorite that we got in our sample pack was the creamy Cajun chicken sausage Pinay. And it is as delicious as it sounds, a lot of good flavors there. You have little spice to it, too. My favorite was the Gravy Lover's Meatballs, and it was the first time I've made meatballs, but they tasted really good and they weren't as hard as you thought they'd be either.

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Which is good. Yeah. If you want to try out every plate, you can get three weeks of meals for only two ninety nine per meal by going to every plate dotcom and entering code ICDs three. So again, every plate dotcom promo code I could three. If you haven't already, check out our book Fifty Dinosaur Tales and one hundred and eight more discoveries from the Golden Age of Dinosaurs and the Golden Age of Dinosaurs is right now, by the way.

[00:28:34]

So their new discoveries look.

[00:28:36]

Yes, yes. That's why we have this podcast to keep up with the Golden Age of Data's. So in this book, we have a whole bunch of stories. Fifty, to be exact, including every major group of dinosaurs from all seven continents. And every short story is from a dinosaur discovery since twenty fourteen. So they're all very new discoveries that aren't in a lot of other books. In addition to those 50 stories, they're also one hundred quick fact sheets about other finds from the last six years.

[00:29:04]

It's available at BEDEL. Why 50? The number five zero dinosaur tail is tails, as in the tails that we're telling about dinosaurs, not the dinosaur tale themselves. You can also get it by joining or upgrading to the Tyrannosaurus level on our Patreon.

[00:29:25]

And now for our Dinosaur of the Day, Damon Saurus, which was a request from NPR Discordance Petrea. So thanks, Damon A was a Bazil Theropod that lived in the late Triassic and what is now New Mexico in the U.S. in the Ginley formation at Ghost Ranch. There's some estimates that it was about five feet or one and a half meters long. And there's other estimates that it was seven feet or two and a half metres long and weighed forty nine pounds or 22 kilograms.

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It was probably about the same height as a tall dog. The skull of Damon Osiris was about five and a half inches or 14 centimetres long, and it had these very large eye sockets. The skull was short and there were long teeth and that was different from other early theropods, which had long heads and jaws. Damon Esau's was a carnivore and it had serrated teeth and it had large premix Hillary and maxillary teeth in the upper jaw. So it had basically large front teeth.

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The first two teeth in the lower jaw are also pretty large, almost like tusks. And the front, they're more like buckteeth. So we'll get to that in a minute. We had heterodoxy, though, differentiate throughout the mouth. Oh, and the premix or the tip of the upper jaw and the front upper the anterior maxillary jaw. Teeth were very large compared to the back upper. The posterior maxillary teeth. Weird. Mm hmm. Like many dinosaurs, it was weird.

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Hans-Dietrich is said that the large front teeth were good for seizing and killing prey and it probably had a powerful bite because of the short, deep snow. That's according to LifeScience. Only the hollow type of a source has been found, and that haplotype includes a nearly complete skull, vertebrae and ribs. The skull was nearly complete, but it was crushed. So the type sweetie's is Daim OneSource charioteers and the genus name means demon lizard. And that refers to the legends about evil spirits at Ghost Ranch, which is where it was found.

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The species name means bucktoothed or prominent tooth or outstanding teeth again, because it had the large teeth.

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There's a lot of difference between outstanding teeth and bucktoothed shrew.

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I like to think of it as bucktooth. Yeah, the fossils were found by Ege Colbert in the 1980s and it was found in a block of mudstone and that mudstone was on loan from Carnegie Museum to the State Museum of Pennsylvania. And then visitors were able to watch volunteers prepare the rock and a volunteer found the demon or skull, and it was named in 2011 by Hans-Dietrich Soos and others. It's unclear if the hall type is an adult or a juvenile because it had these large eye sockets and no fused bones between the brain case bones that made it seem like a juvenile.

[00:32:09]

But then there's sutures on the vertebrae near the skull that are closed. And that's like an adult Damiana source was found with fossils of surfaces. Colbert said in 1989 that a source and if you see the faces were washed into a small pond and then they drowned and were very quickly after Damon source lived in a warm monsoon like climate with a lot of rain. There was a lot of pressure around a lot of animals in general. So versus reptiles, fish and vegetation included conifers, ferns and horse tails.

[00:32:39]

A lot of animals were found close together. And that's probably because of a flashflood. Before Damon Esau's was found, there was a gap in the mid Triassic and paleontologists thought that these early carnivores had gone extinct. And now they know that they were diverse and they lived in the late Triassic. So Dinosaurus helps show the diversity of early theropods, as well as the fact that their iPods had different skull shapes. These different skull shapes meant that they had different feeding strategies, and that made it easy to coexist.

[00:33:07]

Dinosaurus source then helps show the link between Bazil and later Theropods. So based on its features, Damiana source looks like a mix of early theropods like dreamiest from South America and more advanced theropods like Tawa, which is also from Ghost Ranch. But it lived after both dramas. And so it's very strange. And it probably means that Dinosaurus came from early theropods that came to North America and then lived alongside newer, evolving theropods.

[00:33:35]

That makes it a ghost lineage potentially from Ghost Ranch. Oh, good point.

[00:33:42]

So one of these features is the cavities. And so the neck vertebrae that are related to the structure of the respiratory system, according to Hans-Dietrich Soos, which is the type of respiratory system that we see in Neoh theropods and modern birds.

[00:33:57]

So we're talking about with Dille officers earlier. Mm hmm. So, yes, to your point of ghost lineages, Hans-Dietrich Soos said that Dayman source may be part of a dinosaur lineage that didn't evolve later in the Mesozoic and Damini saurus. Fossils are now in the collection of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History. And our fun fact of the day is a little follow up from last week's charcoal eating borealis Delta, because I was thinking about that again when we were going through this bisecting Delta and how it could smell really well.

[00:34:28]

And maybe that led to eating some forest fire materials. Anyway, there are other animals that take advantage of forest fires in relation to eating either charcoal or ash. So monkeys on the African island, Zanzibar, eat charcoal, presumably to counteract the effects of poisons in their food.

[00:34:52]

Oh, so they specifically eat food that has poisoned it? Yes. So there are these leaves which are high in protein and therefore good to eat. But they also happen to have poison on them. And rather than just finding something else to eat there on an island, there might not be a lot of options. So instead they eat charcoal, which is also in some forms known as activated carbon. And in that form it absorbs or absorbs if you're being less technically correct, some of the toxins and therefore it doesn't poison the monkey that wants to eat the leaves.

[00:35:30]

I wonder how long it took the monkeys to figure that out. It is very much one of those things where which monkey figured this situation out? Pretty crazy, but it works.

[00:35:38]

That was the only example I could find of an animal eating charcoal because charcoal was the thing that Borislow Palta had. And it's got contents and I don't know, maybe more yellow. Palta was eating something poisonous and it was smart enough to know that it should eat charcoal as well. But other probably wasn't that bright and so really smart. So they could have gotten lucky and once did it accidentally and then noticed a benefit and it spread that way. Or maybe I think it's more likely that it was eating a bunch of ferns and accidentally because they were like twigs and stuff in there too.

[00:36:10]

That or charcoal seems more likely that it was just accidentally eating charcoal, but could be, we don't know.

[00:36:16]

On the other hand, there are a lot of animals that have been observed eating ash. So charcoal is chunky black pieces. If you have a fireplace and you kind of let it burn out before it burns through all the wood completely, you'll have these big black chunks of charcoal and those are hydrocarbons that aren't completely burned away. So there's still a lot of carbon in that and it gets really porous. And the porosity of that hydrocarbon is what absorbs the toxins or just any chemicals which happen to be around it and the right size to get stuck.

[00:36:51]

On the other hand, ash is fluffy and dusty.

[00:36:54]

If you fully burn down a fire to nothing or you cremate something, you're basically only left with ash. And by the time it's ash, virtually all of the hydrocarbons have been fully burnt away. So there's no carbon left at all, or there shouldn't be any carbon left at all because it's all turned into carbon dioxide and gone up through a chimney or up through the forest canopy, as the case may be. So apparently, dear frequently come around to investigate smoke when something's burning and there have been observed many times eating wood ash.

[00:37:31]

The main reason for this seems to be that ash is high in lots of useful minerals because once all that carbon is burned out of it, you're left with the other nutrients which the plants have absorbed while they were alive. And wood ash is usually very high in calcium and phosphorus. So these are pretty helpful minerals. You need a lot of calcium in order to grow bone potentially also horns if you're a buck that needs to grow a big rack of antlers.

[00:38:01]

And I immediately saw a connection here to hadrosaurs because we talked about those hadrosaurs that were found probably having eaten rotten wood to get out the calcium invertebrates that were in there. So maybe hadrosaurs, if they found some ash, might snack on that as well and get some of the additional calcium or frankly, any dinosaur, because they all played hard shelled eggs. So all of the female dinosaurs should be excited if they could find some ash to chop down as long as they had the right balance of minerals in it.

[00:38:34]

But real quick, for the record, I want to point out charcoal is not a nutritious supplement. There are lots of things online that claim that eating activated charcoal is somehow good for you because it binds to toxins in your body and will have these myriad of health benefits. That is all nonsense because in fact, activated carbon binds to just about everything, all sorts of different molecules that it runs into, including all sorts of vitamins. So if you eat a bunch of activated carbon and something with a bunch of vitamins in it, it's possible that the activated carbon is just going to absorb all the vitamins and you won't get any of those into your bloodstream where you want them.

[00:39:14]

So. It doesn't discriminate between good and bad chemicals, activated carbon doesn't care, it just absorbs everything. So don't get activated charcoal unless there is one example when you should, which is when someone gets poisoned. If you go to the E.R. because you're poisoned and you still have a bunch of the stuff in your GI tract, sometimes they'll put a whole bunch of activated charcoal into your GI tract to absorb the poison before it's absorbed by your guts. So that is one medical use for it.

[00:39:44]

But just on like a day to day basis, activated charcoal doesn't make any sense because you're going to be absorbing a lot of stuff you want to eat. Just don't eat poisonous stuff.

[00:39:54]

Then you don't need to activated charcoal. So don't be like the monkeys on Zanzibar.

[00:39:58]

Yes. We don't have to eat poisoned leaves. There's no reason to get activated. Charcoal and your body is activated.

[00:40:04]

Charcoal the same as activated carbon.

[00:40:05]

Yeah. So basically charcoal, if you burn it down, you're mostly left with carbon because you you burn it in an oxygen depleted environment. So most of the hydrogen comes off on it and. Yeah. So it should be basically carbon when you're done. But usually they call it activated charcoal. But yeah, I think activate carbon is a synonym otherwise I'm wrong and just pretend I said activated charcoal every time.

[00:40:32]

All right. That wraps up this episode of A.A.. Thanks for listening. Don't forget to subscribe to us on your favorite podcast app. So don't miss out on any new episodes and join our community, patrie and dotcom. I know. Thanks again.

[00:40:45]

And until next time to me.