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[00:00:00]

If you want to catch up on some of the dinosaur discoveries from the past five years, check out our book, 50 Dinosaur Tales at Why Slash 50 Dinosaur Tales. And that's Talley's. Hello and welcome to I know, I know, I'm Garrett and I'm Sabrina.

[00:00:24]

And today in our two hundred and ninety seventh episode, we have a bunch of news, including a new theropod from Brazil, some dinosaur sculptures, some of which got damaged, and an upcoming non Jurassic Park dinosaur movie. But don't get too excited. It's maybe not as good as Jurassic Park, but we'll talk about that more later. And we have Dinosaur of the Day, Bologa. But before we get into all of that really quickly, I want to thank some of our patrons.

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We have one new patron to thank this week, and that's Cameron. And then the other nine, rounding out our random drawing winners, our rhinoceros, John Hech, Trev Kyle, Dino Bo for Rassa, Raptor, Scotty, Miyu, Wyatt and Greg.

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Yeah, thank you so much, everybody. We really appreciate all of your support. And we've had a great time watching movies with you and of course, catching up with you on our discord. So if you want to join our growing community, then check out our history. And I know Dinu so jumping into the news, our first news story is going to be a new dinosaur from Brazil as published in scientific reports and written by Juliana Ciau and others.

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And in it they describe a Robosaurus, Masayo Nationale and a Robosaurus comes from two words in the Tupi language, which is the language that was spoken in Brazil prior to colonization, at least in parts of Brazil. Ora means born and atah means fire. So it's something like dinosaur born from fire did have something to do with volcanoes.

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No, but I like where your head's at. The species name will help clarify that it's Masayo nationally and that's after the National Museum in Rio de Janeiro, which was mostly burned in twenty eighteen. Oh, so it's a tribute dinosaur. Yes, it was prepared in that museum and it was there when the museum burned down. But fortunately it didn't get damaged by the fire. Oh wow. So yeah, it's named after that.

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I think they didn't give a reason for the genus name, but they did say that the species name, which I'm not going to say again because it's hard to say, is after the National Museum, but I think I connect the dots and say that it's all named after that fire. So a Robosaurus or maybe it should be ARTUS or this is from Brazil's RCP basin, which is a much drier basin than the Amazon Basin. It's kind of in the same ballpark.

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It's in northeastern Brazil, but farther east than the Amazon. So it's kind of like near that point, which would fit snugly into Africa back when they were joined or if they rejoined for some reason, even though it's much drier than the Amazon Basin somewhere, I saw that they call the SEMIARID. Another place I looked said it was tropical. So, I mean, I guess this tropical because it's seven degrees south. So by definition, it's in the tropics, but it still looks pretty green in the pictures.

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So I guess semiarid isn't really that dry, but definitely drier than the Amazon. Seemed like it would be a reasonably OK place to do paleontology. It didn't look like it was too rainy or too muddy. There wasn't that much plant coverage everywhere. So you might actually be able to find a fossil on the ground without digging through a few feet of dirt. So that's helpful. And the RRSP basin is from the early Cretaceous. In this case, we think the fossil was about one hundred and ten to one hundred and fifteen million years old.

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So pretty old. There's still about 50 million years of dinosaurs after this dinosaur. But there were a hundred million years or so before or two thirds of the way through dinosaur evolution at this point.

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I think the main takeaway is dinosaurs lived a very long time. They really did not avium ones and should say it's pretty ridiculous.

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You can include the avian ones, too. And then they just lived an even longer time. True. Another notable dinosaur from the same area is imitator, famous for its irritating tendencies because it was difficult to excavate.

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Yeah, and they didn't even find that much of it in the end. So all that work for just not that exciting find its I guess is helpful because it expanded Spinosaurus into some more ecosystems. But anyway, back to a Robosaurus or Allosaurus was a therapy hard and that's about all we can say about it. You could get a little bit more specific and say it's a solid crossover, but that's still pretty vague and we don't have a more specific place for it than that.

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In the find they found a, quote, incomplete but articulated right hind limb, end quote. In other words, most of the right leg, they found a partial femur, a partial tibia and several foot bones. Now, since it's the hind limb, this includes. It's the upper leg, lower leg and foot, and they're sort of bent in a Zair shape is the best way I can describe it. It's pretty similar angle between the upper leg and the lower leg and then the lower leg and the foot.

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So the ankle and the knee are both bent at about the same angle. And in this dinosaur, those three sections, the foot, the lower leg and the upper like are all around the same length, roughly speaking. So unlike us, they have a way longer foot proportionally than we have, which gives them that effect of making it look like their knee bends backwards. But it's really their ankle that you're seeing. So the way the fossil came out, we lost the top part of the femur and then we missed that sort of second kink in the Z, which is where the ankle is.

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So we have where the femur connects to the tibia around the knee, and then we have the front of the foot, but we're missing the ankle. We don't have the bottom of the tibia in the beginning because it's that's just how the fossil was arranged. Fortunately, though, almost all of the toe bones and claws are complete. So we've got a pretty good foot to work with. And there's enough of the femur and tibia in the mix that they can make some phylogenetic inferences.

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They also do some histology on the bones. They found that it was still growing. So it was probably a juvenile and they found four growth cycles, although they said there were two legs. So a couple of the growth cycles weren't full lag's in the mix. And as a result, it's at least four years old.

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It's practically a baby. Secrets of the lost legend, but not a sauropod.

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Yeah, they estimate it was about three point one meters or ten feet, two inches long, and it weighed about thirty four kilograms or seventy five pounds. So I guess that's medium sized. I don't know is weird because we talk about dinosaurs as if they have this consistent scaling by the Cretaceous. There were so many huge things that I feel like if you're still only seventy five pounds in the Cretaceous, that's a small dinosaur. It was only four years old though, so who knows how big it would have gotten.

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As I mentioned, it's a Celera. So that's the group that includes T. Rex, modern birds and then everything in between. That's how I always think of it. At least I don't think that's the technical definition. Some of the other big groups that are included, other Comsec methods and the ornithomimus. So ornithomimus or as I call omnibus and things like Comsec Mathes, the little tiny chicken fish once the closest relative to Arada saurus, is it Sulong?

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And that's a similar sized Jurassic Basil Salazar or from China. It's about 40 to 50 million years younger, though, so the two closest relatives are on opposite sides of the earth and in different periods. So it's a little weird. Fortunately for us, the Zilong find is a lot more complete. They also found part of the forearm and a lot of the skull. So we have a pretty good idea of what it looks like. And as a result, the recreation of a Robosaurus looks a lot like two along.

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I think they leaned pretty heavily on what Sulong looks like to fill in all the gaps that you can't see based on just a knee and a foot, weirdly, in their phylogeny. So a long and a Robosaurus, our sister taxa in a very early branch of Solara Soraia with basically 40 to 50 million years of ghost lineage in between them. So you've got Solong Along splitting off from Cilauro Sawaya not that long after sorry, Soria became its own group in the Jurassic.

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And then fifty million years later we've got a Robosaurus in Brazil and we don't know anything else.

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They look like they're close relatives and nothing else that we found fits with them. And so how these dinosaurs got where they were, we don't know. This happens all the time with dinosaurs. It's just another example of huge new missing pieces that you discover. You find one thing and it shows you all the things that you've been missing. A Robosaurus was donated to a nearby museum in northeastern Brazil by, quote, a local resident. And that's all they said about it.

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I kind of expected that maybe the species name would be after them, but it wasn't maybe they don't know yet or they wanted to be anonymous. I'm not sure. They said it was found in a gypsum mine. And it's not the first time fossils have come from that mine and been donated. Previously, there's been a turtle, small fish, coprolites and charcoal found from that mine. Nothing about in chaos or Zeien that charcoal. No, it is interesting how much charcoal is coming up now that I'm aware of it.

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The bones were being prepared at the National Museum in Rio de Janeiro when the main building was burned down, like I mentioned before. But the fossils weren't affected, I guess either they were in a different part of the building or there are also other buildings associated with the museum other than the big former palace, which was the building that burned down as a result. Now they're. Back in the Museum of Paleontology at the Regional University of Career, and that's in the RRSP basin, so it's kind of gone back to where it was.

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It sounds basically like they shipped it down to Rio to get prepared and then they were always planning on getting it back. And that has now happened. And now it's officially described to me. I was like, I want fossils end up back near where they were discovered, because hopefully some people who work in mines or might otherwise stumble upon fossils will see these in a museum and think, if I ever see something similar, I'll recognize it and then it'll get donated to the museum.

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Maybe some new paleontologists will be inspired to join from the area.

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That's where you want to see. Least that's what I want to see. In other news and in this case, non earthly news, Martian news, the Curiosity rover has a new drill target that the team has named Mary Anning. And they're going to drill into Mariana. Well, a target.

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Yeah, but they they're honoring her. It's according to their blog post, it's to, quote, remind us to include everyone in the endeavor of exploration.

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That's cool. I wonder how often they named drill targets, like to the name every single drill target after someone or something they name them. It's not necessarily a person's name. I think Gotcha is another target. Name is Carterville. In Glasgow, Virginia, a recent wind storm knocked the head off of a fiberglass sauropod dinosaur that sits across the street from a pizza place, and it's the town Maska but people from the town, they got together the next day to fix the dinosaur.

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Apparently, this dinosaur was, quote, first placed there as a prank by local artist Mark Klein. That's according to J7, interesting as a prank that became a mascot and brought a whole town together. ABC 10 published about how the covers on dinosaurs ended up on the Itan in Southern California. We've talked about these dinosaurs before because they appear in Pee wee's Big Adventure. I think the two most famous ones from there are Dinni, the Sauropod and Mr. Rex.

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But apparently there's more than 50 dinosaurs and they were built in the 1960s. It took them 11 years to build any are concrete and rebar from the freeway. Resourceful and Diniz one hundred and fifty feet long. It cost three hundred thousand dollars to build and more dinosaurs been added to the area since the 1990s, including some animatronic ones in a recent photo. Both Disney and Mr. Rex are wearing masks. So that's a lot more than I used to know about those dinosaurs.

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In Victoria, Australia, the Bass Coast Shire is looking to make a dinosaur themed walking trail to promote the fossils found there and to help with the local economy after the bushfires, another pandemic. There's also plans to have Haleiwa, a museum and interactive displays in the first dinosaur fossil found in that area was in 1983 at Eagle's Nest Beach. And then more fossils were found in 1978 by Tim Flannery and others. To dinosaurs unique to that area include Contessa's and Gary OneSource.

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The dinosaur themed walk will be about 50 kilometres. It would take two to four days to walk the whole thing. And there's plans to promote the history and culture of the indigenous people from the area as well. And the whole thing is estimated to cost four point five million. That's not so bad for 50 kilometres. Yeah, 50 kilometres is definitely way too far to walk in a day, though.

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That's why they're recommending two to four days. Yeah, we're content. In media news, there's a new movie coming out, this is one Garet referenced earlier, it might actually already be out. It's called Ebola Wrex. We watched the trailer. It's from CBS Entertainment. And it seems to be about a T-Rex that has been injected with Ebola and now the city is in lockdown. I'm not sure what the plot is, but in the poster of the movie, there's a T-Rex chasing after people and then behind them all or some explosions.

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It looks incredibly bad. Well, it's meant to be a B movie. Yeah. It's one of those things where it's like Snakes on a plane. It's supposed to be goofy. Actually, I'm not sure if Snakes on a Plane originally was supposed to be good. I think Snakes on a Plane had a bigger budget and better graphics.

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Yeah, our mentioning it is in no way an endorsement. Let's just put it that way.

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Just found it interesting. Unless the cute dinosaur theme park simulation game Park Service will be getting a V1 release on August 13th, that's been in early access since the end of 2018. We've talked about this game before. It's really cute. The dinosaurs are colorful and I think you can give them hats to wear.

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That's the key. The hats have eyeglasses or little little people outfits.

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I'll let you know after August 13th. Today's episode has brought to you by every plate America's best value meal kit, they recently started offering contactless delivery to your doorstep, which is awesome if you're trying to minimize exposure.

[00:15:21]

Yeah, it also does the meal planning and the shopping for you comes with recipes and all the ingredients you need for the recipes. So it takes a lot of the guesswork out of it and cuts down a lot of time for cooking.

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It's also incredibly affordable, even at regular price. Every plate is up to fifty eight percent cheaper than other major meal kits out there. And the food is really good. My favorite that we got in our sample pack was the creamy Cajun chicken sausage, Penni, and it is as delicious as it sounds, a lot of good flavors. There have little spice to it too. My favorite was the Gravy Lover's Meatballs, and it was the first time I've made meatballs, but they tasted really good and they weren't as hard as you thought they'd be either.

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Which is good. Yeah. If you want to try out every plate, you can get three weeks of meals for only two ninety nine per meal by going to every plate dotcom and entering code ICDs three. So again, every plate dotcom promo code I could three. If you haven't already, check out our book Fifty Dinosaur Tales and one hundred and eight more discoveries from the Golden Age of Dinosaurs and the Golden Age of Dinosaurs is right now, by the way.

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So their new discoveries look.

[00:16:32]

Yes, yes. That's why we have this podcast to keep up with the golden age of dinosaurs. So in this book, we have a whole bunch of stories, 50 to be exact, including every major group of dinosaurs from all seven continents. And every short story is from a dinosaur discovery since twenty fourteen. So they're all very new discoveries that aren't in a lot of other books. In addition to those 50 stories, they're also one hundred quick fact sheets about other finds from the last six years.

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It's available at BEDEL. Why 50? The number five zero dinosaur tale tails as in the tails that we're telling about dinosaurs, not the dinosaur tale themselves. You can also get it by joining or upgrading to the Tyrannosaurus level on our Patreon.

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And now on to our Dinosaur of the Day, Bologa, which was a request from Tiran King, the patriarch in discord. So thank you. Bologa was a theropod that lived in the late Cretaceous in what is now Romania in Hatake Island, and it's similar in size to Velociraptor is estimated to be around five point nine to six point nine feet, one point eight to two point one metres long. And it had these two large retractable sickle shaped claws on each foot, which is different because Velociraptor, for example, only had one.

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Yeah, that's interesting.

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Double claws on each foot. Mm hmm. It reinvolved a functional first toe to help support its weight, which also had the large scale claw and this first toe rotated forward and supported. The second Sekula follower had short, stocky feet and legs and large muscle attachment areas on the pelvis. So it was probably strong, but not that fast. The limbs were proportionally shorter and heavier compared to its relatives. The curved toe claws are not too curved. They're actually less curved than Jamaah swords, but they're similar in shape and curvature to Mesozoic birds.

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Its feet and legs were short and stocky and it had fused bones and the pubic bones are swept back and they bow outwards.

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Bologa was secondarily flightless like an ostrich, meaning it evolved from flying ancestors. Mm hmm. And the third digit on its hand was small and probably non-functional. It basically only had two fingers on each hand. The type species is Bologa Bolduc and the genus name refers to a many headed dragon in Romanian folklore, sometimes thought to have wings usually portrayed as evil. And the species name means Stocki. So the full name means stocky dragon, and it's named Stockey because of its muscles compared to its relatives.

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It was described in 2010 by Zoltán Ziska and others, and they found two partial skeletons. The first fossils were found in 1997 by Dan Grieger Rescue. They found parts of the front limbs, though at the time it was thought to be an overall to restore the arm was so strange it was hard to correctly piece together. Then a partial skeleton was found in 2009 and that became a hollow type. And that was found by geologist and paleontologist Matthias Verm, who's known for finding many Transilvania fossils and who also recently passed away in July.

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Twenty twenty at age 50, Bouwer was found in the seviche formation in red floodplain mudstone water. Verdery was found as well as a lot of the pectoral and pelvic girdles and lots of the limbs. The 1997 fossils were from an individual about 45 percent longer than the hollow type, and that one was found in a younger stratum, Siskin others so that its body was, quote, a dramatic example of aberrant morphology developed in island dwelling taxa. And we all know island dinosaurs tend to be a little strange.

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Mm hmm. Sometimes they get really big. Sometimes they get really little. Yes.

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Although in this case, it wasn't anything to do with the size, really. So Hartog Island is known as the island of dwarf dinosaurs, for example. There's the dwarf sauropod Magaro saurus. The strangeness of bologa or could be because it's an island dinosaur having this island effect. But Bologa wasn't small. It's really hard to classify, though. So over the years, Bollo has been classified as a drama sorehead, Bazil, Evelynn, nothing definitive. No skull was found.

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So it's unclear if it was carnivorous or belarus'. Originally it was thought to be carnivorous because originally it was thought to be closely related to velociraptor. Cischke thought that it could have been an apex predator on the island and may have used its claws to prey. More recent studies by Denver, Fowler and others found that the feat of Peruvians likely use their claws to pin prey to the ground and then use their proto wings to stay on top of their prey and then eat their prey while it was alive, like some modern birds.

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And based on this large first claw infused metatarsus the group of bones in the foot, Bologa was birdlike and probably a predator. Andrea Koppel suggested that Bologa or may have been an omnivore or herbivore, however, and that's why it had these strange features. So one example is it's missing the third digit finger on its hands. Bulger was also short and stocky with a y pubis, so it may have had large intestines to digest plant matter and then the claw and large first hole could have helped support its weight.

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Cao called this the Dodo Raptor model, but after Fowlers research, Cao said that Bologa may have been a predator. Dodo Raptor here. It's a good day.

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However, in 2015, Cao and others did a phylogenetic analysis and while inconclusive, they found that Bologa was closely related to Avio and herbivores such as Sapientis and colonists, and that the broad pelvic canal and other features were, quote, a combination of features convergent virgile acquired only by the non predatory clade. There is dinosaur day among Mesozoic. Theropods, end quote, and that Bauer may have been herbivorous. So now we've brought there is Nassau's in everything strange?

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Yeah. So there is a dinosaur of Hatake Island.

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Perhaps if maybe those extra claws on its feet were just for defense and not for attacking things.

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So Ballhaus hands were atrophied, so they weren't very useful and they would have used its feet to get prey. If it did that, the claws may have helped it with climbing and perching. So not for slashing prey. And it had a lot of birdlike features like the fusion of its limb bones, the big first toes and the first Toccoa being similar in size to the second TOKAWA.

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So it's either an herbivore or a carnivore and it either used its extra claw for hunting or not, and it might have been an omnivore as well.

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No school makes it very difficult to know. And our fun fact of the day is exploring a little bit more about ghost taxa, because I mentioned them a couple of times earlier. So ghost hacks exist in virtually every animal group and has basically any gap in the fossil record. Real quick, just to clarify between ghost taxa and ghost lineages. So ghost taxa is kind of a broad term and it can be gaps in the fossil records of any group of animals.

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So it could be a really large group like, say, Dinosauria, or it can be a really specific group like Tyrannosaur. It's but ghost lineages, according to some people, is only for direct descendants or angiogenesis, where one animal is evolving directly into the next and you're looking for all of the gaps to get filled. So you see exactly what this animal evolved from. But in practice, I think most people use the term ghost lineage to mean any kind of ghost taxa.

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I haven't really seen ghost taxa too much before investigating this. So as I mentioned before, there was a 40 to 50 million year ghost lineage or taxa before Arada saurus back to some unnamed basal saludos, our group, which is a pretty long one, 40 to 50 million years. And we don't know anything about what animals were evolving in that time period, but there are tons of these in the paleontological record. There used to be huge gaps between early Tyrannosaurus or Tyrannosaurus kids in China, and they're later much larger Tyrannosaur IDX ancestors in North America.

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But they've been shrinking all the time with new finds. So now we're down to about 10 to 20 million years of ghost tax, a gap at the widest gap in their evolution.

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My favorite example of a ghost lineage or ghost tax isn't a dinosaur at all is the Seela cans. You may be familiar with them. They're lobe finned. Fish and coelacanths are a Lazarus taxon, and that's because they were thought to be extinct due to a complete lack of fossils. But it turns out they weren't. They were just living in the ocean this whole time. We thought they went extinct way back 66 million years ago with the non avian dinosaurs.

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But it turns out they did not. And they were around for a really long time, too. They evolved in the Devonian over 400 million years ago, way before dinosaurs, and apparently still exist today. So they're one of the older animals that hasn't changed and really major ways over that time period. I should clarify, though, that I say that they were discovered as a Lazarus taxon recently, but even though they were recognized by scientists in nineteen thirty eight off the coast of South Africa, fishermen had been eating them for a long time.

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They just weren't talking to the paleontologists who are studying coelacanth evolution and couldn't find any fossils after sixty six million years ago, just a different group of people down in South Africa that were eating the coelacanths and they weren't talking to each other. So thus you have a Lazarus taxon. Also, since that first coelacanths was identified in South Africa, there have been lots of other areas off of the east coast of Africa where coelacanths have been found and a second species was even found in Indonesia.

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One of the reasons I think coelacanths cats are so cool and the fact that they still exist is so cool is because they're low finfish. The thing that makes the low fins on coelacanths and lungfish different than the ray fins that you see on most other fish, like something you might have in an aquarium is that they actually have bones in them. And eventually, in the case of animals like Tiktaalik, they evolved into limbs that were useful on land and eventually into tetrapods and dinosaurs and humans.

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So coelacanths are sort of, in a way closely related or at least closely resemble the ancestor of humans and dinosaurs is a pretty cool little weird side fun fact. But I want to point out that we're not going to find non avian dinosaurs hiding somewhere. One of the dinosaur documentaries we watched recently with patrons talked about how maybe there are dinosaurs hiding somewhere in the wilderness that nobody's noticed and things like that. But the difference here is those coelacanths were known to humans and were consumed by humans.

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Even so, something that's much larger and on land isn't going to be able to escape human detection when there are seven billion of us and satellite images and all sorts of stuff. If there were not avian dinosaurs that survived the Cretaceous extinction out in the world somewhere, we would have found it by now. And one last quick aside. Ghost lineages also apply to human evolution, but for some reason with humans, they're usually referred to as missing links. And every new fossil in terms of human evolution creates two new missing links because you're basically splitting a ghost lineage in half.

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But as a result, it shortens the ghost lineage of. So I think those lineages or those taxa are much more useful concept than missing links, because it helps to show how much of a gap in knowledge we have. If you count up missing links, the more knowledge you have, the more missing links you're going to have. Like however, many taxa are between a Robosaurus and so along in that 40 to 50 million year gap right now, you might just classify it as one missing link if you're talking about human evolution.

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And then if you found a new species in the middle of that gap, you'd be like, oh, now there's two new missing links. But really the ghost lineage is shortening. And that's the important thing that we're filling in those gaps of evolution. So even though we'll never find every missing link as we shorten these ghost lineages and find out more about evolution, we learn a lot more. And that applies to everything, whether it's humans or dinosaurs or coelacanths.

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It's all good stuff. And that wraps up this episode of A.I.M.. Thanks for listening. Don't forget to subscribe so you don't miss out on any new episodes and join our growing community at Patreon dot com. I know, Daniel. Thanks again. And until next time.