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[00:00:02]

Hello and welcome to the History of India podcast. This is Series five, Episode 23, overtaken by the boogey man.

[00:00:18]

The boogeyman is coming for you, the goblin, the sandman, the creature crawling in the night, something on the edge, something between human and inhuman.

[00:00:30]

These are the stories we tell to scare children into doing whatever mother wants them to do and scare adults with what they might become if they let go of civilization.

[00:00:42]

Although, as far as I can remember, bogeyman hasn't actually been a thing in my life. I mean I mean, obviously there weren't any actual goblins in my life, but but more than that, there weren't actually stories of goblins or Sandman or anything else scary. No tall tales of creatures designed to scare me into line.

[00:01:01]

Thanks, Mom.

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But bogeymen do seem to have been a feature of life in early India, and this week we're going to spend time with a whole clan of them in amongst the bogeymen, the models of how not to live, of what could happen to a people who let go of civilization.

[00:01:24]

Only these ancient Indian bogeymen. They weren't just stories, they were real human beings and even better, after a millennia of silence in the 10th century, we actually hear from them.

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And by some stroke of miraculous luck, this episode set in the 10th century, so we're going to get a chance to hear the stories of the bogeyman and then hear from the bogeymen themselves.

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So if you've got children that you want to scare into line or some natural lesson to teach and you're in need of a good traditional bogeyman to prove your point, then listen on this episode will give you everything you need to know. Redi. Let's go. The Cambodians of the ancient past were monsters, by the way, specifically talking about how ancient people perceive them, that there a bunch of people going around today with the name Cambodge, a really cool name who talk about it later.

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OK, the Cambodians of the ancient past were monsters, at least in the sense that they were a mixture of different things.

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They lived right on the edge of the Indian world in more ways than one. They had one foot inside Indian cultural life. They counted as amongst the 16 great houses of ancient India, the Mahayana bodies. They ruled north India when history began.

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So there, alongside these other houses and most of these these houses became great names of ancient India, right. And they built the early, great cities of India and they were guests to Budarin and Mahavira and people like that.

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But of all of the great houses, the Cambodians, they were the most remote.

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They lived far off to the west, beyond the hills of Gandara, in the mountains at the extreme end of modern Pakistan or or maybe beyond that.

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So there are other foot was firmly outside of Indian cultural life. Although are they one of the 16 great houses in language and in custom, they were foreigners, they were outsiders, they were barbarians, they went around with this Millette Sure language match, match, match, quite different to anything spoken by a civilized North Indian.

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And it wasn't just that they were like other lecher barbarian people, actually, amongst them, Lecia people, three of those groups of matches were picked out as the worst, the most frightful, the most pitiless amongst them lectures. And those three were the Greeks, the Chinese and the Cambodians.

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So these are really thought of as monstrous, as scary, is it weird mix of normal Indian cultural life and something not only barbarian but extreme hip hop Aryan?

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How had the Cambodge is being created? Well, some said that they had once been proper civilized folk, chartreuse, upper caste guys, but that they had been barred from the proper rituals or they'd stop listening to Brahmins and that had dropped them from that high cost status and and that they become savages.

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And indeed, the LAWBOOK seem to agree that if the Cambodians fit anywhere in the car system, they fit in the lowest cost to no longer upper caste if they ever were.

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And they're going to have to be confined to the edge of any village that they happen to be lived in.

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And all of the the stuff that comes with being low cost changes in different periods in history. Of course. Others said that, no, the Cambodians weren't chartreuse. Instead, they came from the gift cow from Nandi, she roared and she created the Cambodians along with some of the other Bletcher peoples.

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Anyway, they lived out there beyond the Western limits of India and they lived lives of barbarity. It said that they shaved their heads completely, but that they let their beards grow unkempt, flowing down a bit like Bruce Willis, who let himself go.

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It said their skin was the color of the rays of the sun, which I think means yellow.

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They said they said that they lived in a slave society, that everyone was either a slave or a master. And in many ways, they were the picture of everything that can go wrong with a society life, there was nasty, brutish and short or so ago, the stories and their useful stories.

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There's something that can be wheeled on stage during all sorts of arguments when you're making a moral point.

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Actually, let's see this story in use, let's hear a few examples of the Cambodia man being wheeled on.

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So here's here's a Buddhist text using the Cambodia as the epitome of evil.

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It's in an argument against the existence of God or at least against the existence of an all powerful creator God, a version of what Qin philosophy students call the problem of evil. And here's the passage. It goes like this. Why does not drama set his creatures right if his wide power, no limits can restrain? Why is his hand so rarely spread to bless? Why are his creatures all condemned to pain? Why does he not to all give happiness?

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Why do fraud, lies and ignorance prevail? Why triumphs foster truth and justice fail?

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I count your brother among the unjust who made a world in which to shelter wrong. Those men are counted poor who only kill frogs, worms, bees, snakes or insects as they will. These your savage cousins, which I hate, such as Cambodia hordes might emulate.

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This doesn't really have anything to do with reality, not the bit about Cambodia's anyway. What do you think about the problem of evil?

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That's up to you saying that Cambodia's of his kids who eat frogs, worms, bees, snakes or insects.

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Eating bees seems to be pretty impractical, worms, worms, I can personally vouch for being pretty, not nice, pretty unpalatable.

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I made mistakes as a as a child. Don't try it at home, kids. What about the rest?

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The insect, the snake. The frog.

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Well, eating that is possible, but I think it's unlikely for people living where the Cambodians were living, both in India and even more in Iran, right next to the Cambodia homeland, eating insects, frogs and snakes was considered a pretty terrible thing to do.

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According to the Xerostomia in Iran at that time, such creepy crawly animals were evil.

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In ancient times, such people even kept a special snake killing to not to eat the snakes, but just so they could kill off the evil. These were definitely dirty, definitely things you you didn't eat and into modern period.

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Actually, there was a yearly festival where everyone out for went for a day killing these kind of creepy crawlies.

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So if the Cambodians really ate these things, they were going into the major traditions in their region. Probably no frogs legs for these fellows. OK, here's another example of the man being wheeled on this one is in an argument against cost, comparing people who think that there are better than anyone else to those filthy Cambodians and Greeks with their slaving ways.

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It goes like this. Still, the Brahmins think Brahmans are the superior cost, the sons and offsprings of Brahma, born of his mouth, born of Brahma, created by Brahma, heirs of karma, or do you think gasolina?

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Have you heard that in in Yoona? That's Greece and Cambodia and other outlying countries. There are only two castes, masters and slaves. And that, having been a master of one, can become a slave and that having been a slave, one can become a master.

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Yes, master, go to. So what strength is there as. What assurance when the Romans say Brahmins are the superior caste, the sons and offsprings of Brahma, born of his mouth, born of Brahma, created by Brahma as a primer.

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That cuts the argument a bit short, that the point supposed to be that this isn't inevitable is not kind of hard written into the rules of the universe as an argument might leave something to be desired.

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But but our point is that.

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Saying someone is like a Cambodia is automatically. Enough to show that they are in the wrong, at least as far as this passage goes. Was there any truth to the claim that Cambodia's practiced slavery that didn't practice caste? Well, yeah, maybe. I mean, slavery was pretty common pretty much everywhere around there and common even in India itself. More on that in a special episode next week.

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One last example of the bogeyman being wheeled on this one, maybe the silliest of them all, this is one from the Buddhist towers, again, the JUTKA towers, all all of these examples from the Bush tax, curiously, as a reason for that, actually.

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But we're not going to we're not going to chat about that anyway.

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Here's one of the tales reminding us as they sometimes do, that women are unspeakably evil and it goes like this.

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How often is a woman's mind like a shifty monkeys found or like the shade cast by a tree on height or depth around how changeable to the purpose lodged within a woman's breast like tire of with a revolving swift without pause or rest, when er with due reflection, they look around and see their way to captivates a man of wealth and make of him their prey.

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Such simpletons with words so soft and smooth they captive lead er as Cambodian groom with herbs will catch the fiercest steed.

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But if when looking around with care, they fail to see their way to get possession of his wealth and make of him their prey, they drive him off as one that now has reached the furthest shore and cuts adrift.

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The ferryboat he needs are more like fears devouring flame.

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They hold him fast in their embrace or sweep him off like stream in flood. That is on a pace. They caught a man they hate as much as one they adore. Ian is a ship that hugs are like the near and further shore. They not to one or two belong like open stores. They are. One might as soon catch wind with net as women held in sway.

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It goes on cynical. Reader might think that this is a a monk, he's got nothing to do with women trying to persuade men not to have much to do with women. But whatever you think of the passage, the way that they talk about the Cambodians is quite interesting. Cambodia's aren't just a bogeyman. They're not just a symbol of evil.

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It said that there are people who catch horses and actually if you go to the original, this translation is a bit of an old one, a bit funny. We get a bit more detail. It says that Cambodia's take some pond where they soak it with honey, combining it with some other passages, I think.

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So you've got this pond weed. You've got soaked in, honey, the new place in this sort of caged area. And then the Cambodians would wait for a wild horse, a strong one, to come in for a quick bite to eat.

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And then they would catch the horse.

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And here, maybe for the first time, we're hitting up against the real people behind the bogeyman image, not that this is necessarily a very effective way of catching wild horses.

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I don't know if it would work.

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I mean, I know horses like honey, so maybe it would work. But in any case, the real challenges would probably know if it would work, because the bit about Cambodia being horse masters, that's real.

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And that's the main thing they were known for. They had the finest warhorses that could be had anywhere in the world, and as we found in earlier episodes, India is often short of good warhorses, strong enough to support your weight or pull off a big chariot, fast enough to ride into battle.

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That sort of warhorse only really came from the region where the Cambodia's had their homeland.

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We get these descriptions of these Cambodian horses, it said that they had noses like bird beaks.

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Not really sure what that means. It said that they had coats, the color of a partridge.

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Quite sure about that, either partridges or all sorts of colors. Although to be honest, it is not clear what bird the original tax is referring to. One translation says that the horses were the color of parrots, which is fun, but I think a bit a bit of a stretch. More likely the text just meant that the horses from the Cambodia's lands were dappled.

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So these beautiful Cambodian warhorses were everywhere in the stories, they drew the chariots of heroes in the epics and actually the Cambodian warriors, the cavalry fought in the epics to the Cambodians were part of the great battle at the center of the Mahabharata epic.

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And their king was there, too.

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He was killed by Arjuna in the Mahabharata in one to one combat. The Cambodian forces were occasionally appealed to elsewhere, too, in one of the latest stories, the Cambodians are supposed to be some of the men hired by Ginocchio and Chandra Group to morea in their battle to found the Morillon Empire.

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And there's a chance that it's true. There's a chance that these Cambodians were going around being mercenaries.

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In China, his book, In the Auto Shastra, we hear that the Cambodians were a republic, they were no longer ruled by one king alone as appeared in in the ethics.

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Instead, they were one of these sort of semi democratic people.

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And these people were known for their warlike traits, known for being invincible. Combine that with the fact that they had the best war horses on land, and it might well have been that they hide themselves out as mercenaries to aspiring kings.

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They would have had the reputation. Sometimes being a bogeyman can help. But all of that just says it's not altogether unlikely that they were out there and part of regular Indorama is as mercenaries, doesn't actually show that it happened.

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Let's zoom in a bit on where the Cambodge is actually lived. So bitter dispute about it, but probably the ancient homeland of the Cambodia's was to the south east of the Hindu Kush, the mountain range that so sprout's off the Himalayas and so SWEEP's down southward to inclose that end of the Indian subcontinent.

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They may have actually lived a bit further north, higher into the mountains. Some people claim that their capital was in modern day Kashmir, although there's actually not much more to that than a vague similarity of names.

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And in any case, the Cambodians may have started there, but they do seem to get around a bit. At one point, a text tells us that they are people from the vineyards, right, people from that patchwork line of hills and mountains that separates north India from the south.

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But through all of this that we only see the Cambodians in the distance and in darkness, we don't really know exactly where they are and we don't really know exactly how they live there. They're silent people.

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We never hear their voice in the texts. They're always at least half the bogeymen still shambling onwards.

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And then. In the 10th century. The bogeyman speaks. And it happens in the last place in India, you would expect in Bengal, in the extreme east of India. There was a pillar there, a decorated one, it had just three lines of writing and it said this. By him, whose ability in subduing the forces of his irresistible enemies and liberality in appreciating the merit of his suitors are sung by the dear daughters in celestial spheres, by that sovereign of Gowda, by him who is descendant from Cambodian Loyn.

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This temple, the beauty of the Earth, was elected for CHIVA in the year eight eight eight. The year eight, by the way, we don't really know what year that is because we don't know where they're starting counting from in this case. But here we've got the king of the Golders ruling in Bengoa Upsala King.

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But also a member of the Cambodia family and dear listener, if you confused, well, that only means that you've been listening. This should come as something of a shock.

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The polar empress had ruled over the east of India for more than 100 years, ruling over Bihar and Bengal, as we've heard in the series, they often ruled much more than that.

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We've heard how they fought on and off with their mortal enemies, the PRATTY hirer empress of the West.

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They lost more often than they won in that battle, but they took advantage of every opportunity.

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Here's a very quick recap of the empire Emperor Dhammapada had been the first to really establish the kingdom as an empire. He ruled all the way up to the imperial city where he installed his puppet king, and he was followed by his son, Emperor David Parlo. Equally powerful, maybe even more so. He ruled the north of India with a firm grip until the middle of the 9th century.

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And then well after that, the empire generally goes to seed the emperors who came immediately and seemed to have got into a bit of squabble about succession as usual.

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If that's true, then there was a cover up and we can only guess based on the fact that emperors had very short rules and their brothers took over instead of their sons.

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But after this brief period of confusion, things quietened down a bit. And by the middle of the 19th century, the parlor empire was being ruled clearly by one man, the Garappolo.

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Now, the Graha parlor was a religious man.

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Like all his forefathers, he was a he was a Buddhist, though he was one who took part in quite a few ceremonies as his advisers instructed him to.

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And he was so religious that he doesn't seem to have actually done anything much for the country, or at least so.

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Historians sometimes say no inscriptions have actually come down to us from his time. He abdicated his throne, left the empire to his son and went off to join the religious life to be a monk. His son, the new emperor, was called Narayana Parlo.

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By this time, the empire had sort of shrunk a fair amount, although he still seems to have inherited much of Bihar and West Bengal.

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So most of east India and a good chunk of northeast India, too, most likely so. Still a major player on the world stage. But Narayana Polla, like his father, was a religious man and doesn't seem to have got into fighting too much.

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That's just suppose the recap for a moment, can we have a quick chat about this idea of Pacifist King's? It's actually pretty common when you read ancient Indian history to hear about them and almost always these pacifist kings are Buddhists as an idea that goes all the way back to the greatest pacifist king of Indian history, Ashoka the Great, though his pacifism is actually rather exaggerated nowadays, I think.

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In fact, the pacifist tendencies of most Buddhist kings seem to be pretty exaggerated. I remember once reading an academic paper, I forget if I've mentioned it before. The paper was examining whether Buddhist societies were less violent than non Buddhist ones.

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And it actually looked at the historical evidence for that and have found no good evidence that Buddah societies were less violent, but it proceeded to try and explain why Buddhist societies were less violent anyway.

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Well, if you think that Buddhist kings are the pacifists, well, Narayana Parlo bucks the trend. His whole family had been Buddhist, all of the pilot emperors all the way back to the beginning. I mean, the dynasty seal was packed with Buddhist imagery. It was two deer facing towards a Chakarova symbolizing the message of Buddha.

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But although Niuean upon his entire family had been Buddhist and he was head of what was a fairly Buddhist empire, he himself was not a Buddhist, he was a devotee of CHIVA. He continued to sponsor Buddhist communities, but he also poured his money into Shi'ite temples. He constructed one which, according to a text, was a thousand stories high and very Rumi.

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It says something, I think, about the religious life in east India at this time that an emperor could abdicate to a Buddhist, become a Buddhist monk and leave the empire to his devoutly scheelite son.

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And before we go back to the story, there's another thing about the supposed pacifist kings, they usually thought to not only be Buddhist, which I don't think is right, they're also assumed to be rather bad kings.

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Many a history book implies that some peaceful king was the cause of the downfall of their empire, that by not waging war and pushing back the boundaries of the empire, it must be that they were the cause of its collapse.

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In fact, that's a move, an influence that's made so often.

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It's become casual, something which book just mentioned in a sentence, as if it's obvious, as if it doesn't need any further justification. But more often than not, I'm not convinced and are not convinced in this case.

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People seem to say sometimes that the part of empire collapsed because of these really rather peaceful emperors. And it's true that the poller empire did stop expanding and started shrinking a bit, most likely.

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But I don't see the evidence that it was because of a run of pacifist kings or partly because neither of these kings, he would have actually driven the empire down. The empire was still functioning pretty darn well. These kings were doing the difficult daily work of keeping the empire going, keeping the machinery of state grinding on.

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And if they left us no glorious reports of battles and lands conquered. And if we take that to be a sign that they were weak emperors, poor rulers, well, maybe that tells us more about us than it does about them.

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Anyway, rant over sorry, back to the Pilar's and the Cambodia's.

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The pillar of the Burger King of Gouda is the first time we hear from the Cambodians themselves as far as we can work out, and the king doesn't actually give his name, but we do know the names of the other kings in this line because we have another record from them.

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It's a copper plate. It's double sided with the Buddhist seal fixed on top. It's written in this fairly clean Sanskrit no lecture lecture language.

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The record claims to be written by a Cambodia king, and this time it's got names, King Raja Parlo and his wife Vasudev, and he passed the kingdom on to his son, King Narayana Parlo.

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And by now, the pilot empire enthusiasts amongst you will be foaming at the mouth. Those are the names of Parlo emperors. Even Emperor Rajagopalan wife's name is correct, the boogeyman, the Cambodians, were they actually the parlor's the kings of Gowda all along?

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Well, no, no, that's not what happened. The timing's all wrong. The order of names is all wrong. There's a different dynasty here, not the Piner dynasty that ruled the empire, but a group of people who call themselves Parlo, also ruling in Bengal and claiming ancestry from the Cambodia's.

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So these weren't the parlor emperors, but they did replace the Pilar emperors in part of Bengal, at least, carving out a little kingdom within the heartland of the Pilar empire.

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So why on earth did they have the same names as the polar emperors, even the same name for their queen, that surely can't be a coincidence.

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I mean, true, there are plenty of kings around who call themselves something something polar, but getting the same names generation after generation and marrying a woman with the same name, that's just too much to put down to chance.

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Maybe there is a bit of dynastic identity theft going on here. Most likely this is a line of Cambodia kings who are trying to seem legitimate by mimicking the popular emperors who had gone before them. And that tells you something about just how closely the pilot emperors had become associated with power in this part of the world. They were the model of power to be imitated right down to the names.

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And actually, this little Cambodia kingdom wasn't alone, there were other kingdoms emerging pushing through, emerging into the heartlands of the old parler empire, laying down roots there and thriving by imitating the pioneer emperors who came before.

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On the very edge of India, out beyond the huge delta where the Ganga and Brahma Putra Rivers roll at last into see there's this this rises this line of small hills and beyond them parallel to them, taller hills.

[00:29:10]

And these lines of hills rise until they become the mountain range that splits off in the Indian subcontinent from Myanmar.

[00:29:18]

And there there was a man called Troy Lockyear Chandra, which means the moon of the three worlds or something like that, and he was setting up a kingdom. He was very much the new king on the block.

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His family came from a place called ratbaggery, which might mean something like Redhill, and probably it was somewhere not too far away from the eastern edge of India. Probably old moon of the Three Worlds was not setting up the kingdom too far from his ancestral homeland. He wasn't a big time player. He wasn't building things that spanned across east India. He traced his dynasty not back to any any God or any great hero, but only back two generations to his grandfather.

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He was also named after the moon, as was his father. In fact, all of the kings in this dynasty were named after the moons, but it was a short line of moon kings so far, and neither his father nor his grandfather seem to have been anything more than minor kings at best. Even Old Moon of the three worlds himself seems to have been a minor king, serving a slightly less minor king.

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He was a small guy's henchman, way out on the edge of the world.

[00:30:38]

But King Moon of the Three Worlds was about to go into battle and he was going to fight the emperor and according to one of the three worlds own inscriptions, at least he soon had the emperor entirely in his hands and he would have crushed him entirely, driven him down into the earth with his upraised sword had the pilot emperor not fallen before him in submission.

[00:31:02]

Moon is a three worlds held back, the killing blow. He refused to wrap chains around his enemies feet or a noose around his neck. Or so say his inscriptions, and moon of the three words did really carve out a bit of the kingdom on the edge of Ben Gordon and down south a bit, too, towards the delta, towards the sea. He carved out enough land and and gained enough power to found a dynasty of moon kings.

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And his son, Sri Chandra, Lord Moon, he would take that kingdom and expand it right, capturing the queen, the Empress, invading A and the north east and really founding the beginnings of a significantly sized kingdom, maybe, who knows, even an empire.

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And these these guys, the moon kings, the Shondra Dynasty, they're just like the Cambodians. They're imitating the Pilar's who they're beating back. At the top of every parlor inscription, there's this Buddhist seal we talked about a bit earlier, you got the two deer facing towards the will and then I think the name of the emperor is almost always underneath that.

[00:32:17]

Well, if you go and you look at any of the inscriptions of the Chandra dynasty of the moon kings, you look at the top and right there it's the same seal. It's the same thing, too, dear, facing towards the chakra, the Buddhist symbol, and below that, the name of the emperor or the king, although of course, in this case, it's not the polar emperor.

[00:32:42]

It's the Shondra King. In fact, the only real difference is that the CEOs of the pilots were round, whereas the CEOs of the dynasty have a sort of pokey bit on top. But other than that, it's pretty much an exact copy.

[00:33:01]

Once again, you've got a small kingdom pushing through in the empire's heartlands and boring some in the trappings of the polar emperor.

[00:33:10]

Imitating them while stealing their power. So the picture is that the pilot empire, once so powerful, was losing ground even in its heartland, that these small kingdoms were growing in power and dominance, doing the unthinkable, beating the old empire in battle even.

[00:33:31]

But the story of the pilot empire doesn't end there. It isn't over yet. The pilot empire will strike back. It will turn the corner against these small kingdoms and it will once again become the center for political power in North India.

[00:33:48]

And that's a story. For another episode, indeed, that's a story for another season altogether.

[00:34:00]

Before we go, let's catch up on what happened to the Cambodia's. There's a rumor that they went to Southeast Asia. The story goes that there was a king of Delhi who got into a fight with one of his sons and that the prince left the kingdom in shame, that he left India altogether.

[00:34:20]

By and by, he arrived in Southeast Asia. And there he drove out the local ruler and married another woman. This is the the legendary snake creature. His new father in law did him a solid if they even if he drank up a huge chunk of the ocean and this exposed a new land for the prince to start a new country and one that came to be called Cambodia, Cambodia, Cambodia.

[00:34:48]

That's how the story goes, although it's probably not got too much behind it other than a similarity between names again.

[00:34:56]

Actually, it's not even clear that the Cambodians of of early medieval Bengal had anything to do with the horse folk who lived in the mountains beyond the outer edge of India.

[00:35:08]

Some historians think that the guys in Bengal were just people from Tibet who had picked up that that ancient and fearful name. Cambodia, when they came out, came down from the Himalayas.

[00:35:20]

And there's a bit of evidence for that. In India today, there are plenty of people around with the surname Cambodge or Cambodge, which, let's face it, is pretty darn badass.

[00:35:33]

Some of the modern Cambodge folk traced their history back to Cambodia through the Cambodia of Bengal, all the way back to the Cambodia Mahayana part of the north west.

[00:35:43]

And it seems, as far as I can tell, that that many historians tend to think of the evidence being against those claims, against tracing the history in that thread, or at least they think that these claims require a bit more support.

[00:35:58]

Whether that's the case, I leave it up to you to decide. Every week we read something from the original sources and actually there's a fair bit to choose from this week because the Chandru Dynasty left us a fair few inscriptions, maybe you'd consider them a minor dynasty, at least at the moment.

[00:36:22]

But she Chondra, the most recent king that we mentioned, he alone has quite a lot of words left to us.

[00:36:29]

So we're going to choose one of them.

[00:36:31]

It's going to be one pretty much at random, which describes the story of the family like these things usually do.

[00:36:38]

The one I've chosen commemorates a gift of land, and it goes something like this. The blessed victim, the sole vessel of compassion, is to be given the bondage and the law, that single light in the world is victorious.

[00:36:57]

By resorting to them, the entire eminent company of monks reaches the end of worldly existence.

[00:37:04]

In this majestic line of tundras, rulers repeatedly was one who, being like the full moon, was known to the world as the illustrious plurinational. He was declared head of his lineage on image pedestals on New Chesil, carved inscriptions on victory columns and on copper plates.

[00:37:26]

His son, suvarna Chandra was a follower of the Buddha and was celebrated as one who had been born into the family of the divine moon, which devoutly carries in its curve. The Buddha's have a story in the form of a mark whose rays are the source of Sohmer. This is pretty cool. It's a reference to one of the JUTKA towers, the towers of Buddha's former life. And in this tower he was born as a hammer. And of course, his image gets painted on the moon is why.

[00:37:54]

When you look at the moon today, there's an image of a hair, the hair as in rabbit like thing. Of course not hair on your head. Anyway, back to the inscription.

[00:38:04]

His son, suvarna Chandra was a follower of the Buddha and was celebrated as one who had been born into the family of the divine moon, which devotedly carries in its curve. The Buddha's have a story in the form of a mark and whose rays are the source of Sohmer. It is said that on the day of the new moon, his mother had a pregnancy induced longing to see the moon's orb rising, and she was gratified by the birth of a golden Shandra.

[00:38:31]

He was given the name suvarna. Chandra says suvarna Chandra means gold and Moon and his mother supposedly saw a golden and his son try lockyear.

[00:38:42]

Chandra, by whom both families were purified, was known in the three worlds for his virtues, which were the refuge of the well-born and the guests of the four quarters. He who is like the like of Flipper, was king on the island that has the distinguishing name Chandra and was the support of the power that had bloomed on the regal canopy of the King of Harry Keller as George Snr to the moon.

[00:39:10]

Suchi traditional Gowri Tahara and Sreedhara Shourie Konasana, who was as lovely as gold, was beloved to him, whose dominion was respected in the name of his queen, knowledgeable in affairs of state and possessed of Indras majesty.

[00:39:27]

He begat by her at a moment auspicious by association with a rajha yoga stretch under a sun like the moon, in whom the marks of the King were pointed out by astrologers having caused the Earth to be adorned by a single canopy. He, who has proof against the influence of fools and whose enemies were imprisoned, perfumed the faces of the Cortez with his glory.

[00:39:50]

Now, from the glorious headquarters established at mighty Vikram Emperor, he a follower of Buddha, a great lord, chief among learned men, king of kings, the illustrious king, Shri Chandra in good health contemplates at the feet of the King of Kings illustrious King Troy Lockyear Chandra with regard to 10 acres of land, introducer of the gun Algeri locality.

[00:40:14]

And here, let's just forget about the inscriptions describing the land that's going to be gifted and the rights and responsibilities that go along with it. So it has to be approved by you, all future kings to or to empathize with and maintain this gift through respect for the reward that ensues from a gift of land and from fear of the fall into hell that lies in plundering it.

[00:40:39]

The inhabitants and cultivators of the land obedient command must meet the payments of the Jews. Further, there are verses in praise of the Dharma on this subject, both receiver and down of the land of virtuous and will surely go to heaven. The giver of land delights in heaven for 60000 years. Anyone who refuses an offer of land or permits misappropriation of land spends that long in how he takes back land that he or someone else has given will be tormented as a worm in excrement along with his ancestors.

[00:41:13]

Much land has been donated by many kings from Sagada on, he who owns land has its reward for collecting that. A man's life and riches are as transient as a drop of water on a lotus petal and heating that all that has been said above.

[00:41:29]

Men should not ruin the renown of others drawn up by the chief supervisor of boundaries and then examined by the chief record keeper on the 15th day of the negotiator and the forty sixth year of the illustrious King, Shri Chandra.

[00:41:51]

And that's it for this episode, in fact, that's it for the regular part of this season. It's been a long season.

[00:41:58]

We've had more regular episodes than in any of the other seasons by far.

[00:42:02]

For those who have been following along as the episodes come out, you might have noticed there are a couple of big gaps in the season, too. In a couple of cases, it was more than a month between episodes.

[00:42:12]

But we're back now to every week, which is good news. And over the coming weeks are going to be releasing a bunch of special episodes. We're going to be doing a special episode on Slaves. That's coming up next. There are other ones on courtesan's or on poets and polyandry sites and much more. We're going to have a substantial miniseries on the empire of the South. The Rasht recruiters really looking forward to that one. Another one on some of the challenges.

[00:42:41]

I'm really excited to get into the calendars in the east of India and in between will be a few special episode added to the other series. So we've got an audio guide to Sanchi that's written and just being recorded. There's an awful lot coming up that I'm really looking forward to, and all of it should now be on a regular basis.

[00:43:02]

I hope you have been enjoying the season and the series, and if you have been enjoying it, please consider donating to my wife's charity. That's the Snail CEDO Patrick Memorial Fund.

[00:43:14]

You can get details for that on the website, there's a link in the description, although, of course, you know, there's so much need just around your area that you might just consider donating to to people who need your help right now. Anyway, wherever you are, I hope you're doing well. I hope you're finding joy in life until next week. Take care.