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This is the Global News podcast from the BBC World Service.
I'm Nick Miles. And at 13 hours GMT on Tuesday, the 1st of September, these are our main stories. The French satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo has republished caricatures of the Prophet Mohammed a day before the trial in Paris of those accused of involvement in the Islamist attack on its offices five years ago. Lebanon is 100.
Emmanuel Macron is there to broker political change. For most people, that can't come soon enough. Who should pay for the news? Shared online Facebook hits back at plans in Australia to make it pay.
Also in the podcast, Back to School with a difference.
They will do temperature checking and then you have to go through with more political area where they thought he would get them back.
And after six months off, because of coronavirus, hundreds of millions of children are back in class. And we look at the increasingly faltering efforts to stage the US tennis open in New York.
Five years ago, on a crisp January morning in Paris, two heavily armed men forced their way into the offices of the French satirical weekly newspaper Charlie Hebdo during the shooting rampage that followed, they killed 12 people and injured 11 others.
Paris, mid-morning gunfire. Ordinary magazine office in the center of Paris now perhaps the scene of one of Paris's most deadly terrorist attacks is one of those reached who was inside the building, described the scene as carnage because when they attack, when the 17 were killed, that didn't just affect France or the Charlie Hebdo newspaper. They attacked the whole of Europe. And we mustn't be afraid.
We must stand up to this Patrick Pelloux, who replaced editor Stephane Charbonnier when he was killed in the shooting.
Speaking in the aftermath of the attack, it was the controversial publishing of cartoons of the Prophet Mohammed that seems to have been the main motive behind the shooting and now in what some may see as an equally controversial move.
Charlie Hebdo has republished the cartoons. Mike Sanders is our Europe editor. He reminded me of what the cartoon showed and the wider impact they had at the time.
Well, I suppose one of the most offensive cartoons showed a picture of the Prophet Muhammad with a bomb on his head in reference to militant Islam's use of violence to achieve its agenda. But, of course, there is a general injunction in Islam against any representation of the Prophet Muhammad. It's seen as Haram is not allowed. It stemmed from originally from an injunction against idolatry worshipping of graven images, which, of course, you can find in the Bible as well, but has since hardened over time against any representation of the prophet or of God.
Now, in spite of the fact there was widespread condemnation at the time from the Muslim community in France, I imagine the republishing of these cartoons is going to be offensive to many people.
Well, as you say, there was a great wellspring of support for Charlie Hebdo in the immediate aftermath of the attacks of January 2015. And in fact, the phrase which Charlie I am Charlie was very widely used by people around the world. And there was a demonstration of support by some two million people in the days following the attack, and it was attended by world leaders from around 40 countries. But there was also disquiet in the Muslim community that the cartoons were deliberately provocative.
And so that disquiet has not subsided and will, I'm sure, be in people's minds with this latest publication ahead of the trial of some of the accomplices or alleged accomplices in the original attack.
Yes, the context of this is that trial that goes ahead of 14 people in connection with these shootings.
That's right. They're going on trial on on Wednesday. Now, of course, it is, as I say, is still seen as very untoward that any kind of images of Mohammed are published. But the magazine has previously refused to do so. After the initial publication. It said there was no point in doing so at random. But it now feels that it's imperative to publish these cartoons on the eve of the trial because they say they will not relent and risk.
The editorial director says the hatred that hit us is still there. It's changed shape over time to pass unnoticed and continue its what he calls its pitiless crusade.
Mike Sanders, our Europe editor. Lebanon is 100 years old today, but there's no party atmosphere out on the streets. The devastating explosion that leveled a huge swathe of the city and killed more than 190 people has seen to that.
Instead, the date is being marked by a visit from President Emanuel and of France, the former colonial power.
His visit, the second since last month's blast, comes against a backdrop of continuing political uncertainty and Monday's appointment of Mustafa Adeeb as prime minister.
But that hasn't gone down well with the protesters who've been demanding reform of Lebanon's often corrupt political system. Lina Buber's is one of the thousands who've been campaigning for change.
Maitake and Mustafah added that he belonged to the same old center, the corrupted Solstar that we've been fighting since October 17.
They chose him because they want to remain in power and they don't want the people to share it with them. We don't want that.
Well, we had some pretty fierce scepticism about the new prime minister. So what chance has he got of succeeding? There was a question I put to our Middle East analyst, Alan Johnston.
There is very deep, very widespread contempt for the ruling establishment in Lebanon, and that is understandable. Frankly, it is run the country so badly, so corruptly for so long. And as you heard in that clip, the new prime minister, Mustafa Adeeb, was appointed from within the political establishment, the old. Parties got together yesterday and agreed to put him in the prime minister's office. Mr Dean is promising rapid reform, but will he be able to deliver any meaningful change would hurt those vested interests that just put him into power.
Will those established parties be ready to step back, accept change? Now, many Lebanese will be deeply sceptical, but perhaps the economic situation is now so very bad that maybe those ruling parties will accept that there has to be some change at last. Maybe Mr Deep's job will be easier than it was for his predecessors. Meanwhile, Emmanuel Macron, the French president, is in Beirut, as I said.
What's he been saying? That a bit of carrot, bit of stick, isn't it?
From the very outset, Mr Macron has tried to put himself at the centre of the effort to resolve Lebanon's crisis, get it out of all this trouble. We saw him in his shirtsleeves in the disaster zone within days of that explosion in Beirut last month, and he's bringing all the pressure he can to bear on Lebanon's leaders. He said again and again there needs to be major reforms and major reforms quickly. In the past hour, he said explicitly that he is ready to use his political weight to try to ensure that Mr De forms a government quickly and implements reforms.
Mr Macron also calling for a full audit of the Lebanese banking system. He wants to know just quite how bad things are, and he's made clear that without change, without reform, there will be no international money from the likes of France that that Lebanon so desperately needs to get through this very, very severe crisis.
And briefly, Alan, he's making offerings of money potentially. But will people in Lebanon be welcoming of that, given that it's the former colonial power?
You're right that this is 100 years today since the French declared the state of greater Lebanon there. Here we are with a French president calling the shots in Beirut. There are clear colonial echoes there, and some people won't like that. But Lebanon is in trouble. It needs help. Mr. Macron looks like one of the best sources of it right now.
Our Middle East analyst Alan Johnston there this week. We're looking at the impact five years on of the 2015 Great Migration of more than a million people, most leaving Syria for Europe today.
To Hungary, where Prime Minister Viktor Orban has made a name for himself as the most anti-immigrant leader, a fence builder and champion defender of what he calls Christian Europe.
Budapest correspondent Nick Thorpe has more.
I'm walking down the disused railway track down which thousands of asylum seekers entered Hungary from Serbia in the spring and summer of 2015. It all looks very familiar today are the same sunflowers and corn growing in the fields. Only the crowds are missing. This is gonna blow up your. To the west of the railway track is the village of Assured Ashkelon that summer, the Hungarian authorities struggled to register all the new arrivals, 400000 people crossed, so they built fence.
Today, there were two fences with a security road running between them. The fence was actually the idea of local Mayor Laszlo Troitsky. He's driven me down to the border to admire it. Yes, it was my idea. Thousands and thousands of illegal immigrants arrive every day. This field was totally open and there was no Hungarian police, there was no Serbian police. We were totally alone with this problem.
The fence over 200 kilometres long, glitters in the late summer heat. A few migrants still tried to cross from Serbia each night, but they stand little chance against razor wire, night vision cameras and electric current and the combined forces of the Hungarian police and army. It's become one of the southern ramparts of Fortress Europe. Government spokesman Zoltan Kovacs sees it as an unqualified success and a symbol of his government's vision of Europe.
Fences we don't like. But there are moments in history and in acute crisis. There's no other way than to raise a physical barrier that could stop people crossing illegally. We don't like other people coming here, especially different religions entering the European Union who we know are not going to abide by the rules and they are not going to follow the European way of life because their culture is different. It's not a matter of racism or anti-racism in the face of unremitting government hostility.
A handful of human rights organizations help those in need. Marta Partovi is co-chair of the Hungarian Helsinki Committee, a human rights group which offers legal help to asylum seekers.
Migration is being used by the Hungarian government to further polarize Europe and to make European integration more difficult. This is the wedge that is being driven into the European Union. It's become more difficult to stand up for refugees in Europe, particularly here in Hungary, but it's still crucial that we do so, says Salah manometer.
As in Kiev, beyond mojados Dunbartonshire, an Iranian artist, Abuzer Sultani and his 11 year old son Armin, applied for asylum in Hungary. They were placed in detention for 18 months and their plea was rejected. They were sentenced to deportation back to Iran. Then the Hungarian Helsinki Committee took their case to the European Court of Justice and one this week. The Hungarian authorities are reconsidering their asylum request. They hope to stay here on another major.
I was in a prison, but then I understood there was just politics.
I realized people in Hungary have big hearts and want to help us to be free, that they love refugees. I love Hungary and would like to live here.
Asylum-seeker Abuzer Sultani ending that report by Nick Thorpe. Now, here's a question, will the Internet spell the death of newspapers? People have been asking that for more than 20 years now, rather belatedly, perhaps Australia is doing something about it.
It's preparing a new law that would force social media giants to pay for the articles they users share. It's led to a growing face off with Facebook, which today hit back, saying that if the law comes into effect, it will prevent any sharing of news on its services.
In response, the head of Australia's Treasury, Josh Frydenberg, says Australia will not succumb to Facebook's threats.
Australia makes laws that advance our national interest, and we won't be responding to coercion or heavy handed tactics wherever they come from. As you know, the U.S. undertook an 18 month inquiry into the digital platforms. That inquiry and subsequent consultation is the basis for our reforms going forward.
Our correspondent in Australia, Cima Khaleel, told me more about the increasingly heated debate.
If this code of conduct that's been developed by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, the consumer watchdog, if you will, if that becomes law, it will force Google.
It will force Facebook to pay media organisations for the content that they carry on these platforms.
The government instructed the watchdog to put this in place, essentially to address the power dynamics and frankly, to address the income imbalances between news outlets and digital tech giants, essentially to level the playing field and to bring those news organisations at a negotiating table with Facebook and the way Facebook responded as they basically issued a threat.
The Australia New Zealand managing director, Willesden, wrote a blog post and he said, assuming this draft code becomes law, we will reluctantly stop allowing publishers and people in Australia from sharing local and international news on Facebook and Instagram. They said, this is not our first port of call, this is our last resort.
But we will come to it if this becomes law, if we're forced to pay for content that is now given to us voluntarily.
There are two issues that it will be imagine very, very unpopular from Facebook's customers and also pretty difficult to enforce.
It is pretty difficult to enforce. I mean, essentially what the government is asking Facebook to do is it's asking it to sit down and negotiate with news and media organisations about how it could pay for a content. The other thing that Facebook is arguing is that actually by having this content on their platforms, these media organisations get a lot of traffic. So, for example, Mr Easton claimed that in the first five months of this year alone, news websites gained about two point three billion clicks back from Facebook to their news feed and their websites, which was worth about 150 million dollars.
So a lot of money, he claims to have contributed by the mere fact that Facebook is carrying this content. Another big question, as you say, is, well, what does that mean for consumers? What's unclear is that if this becomes law, what that will mean for anybody who's using this platform.
Shaimaa Khaleel, now to a story about a very original artist. Her name is Abd Boonen. Me about the BOA.
She's the Nigerian American artist who, while in the School of Visual Arts in New York City, decided to use black human hair as a medium to depict her art on canvas. She told us why she's using human hair.
One of the reasons why I made that shift from traditional art material to black hair is because of the history in the ancestry that is embedded in a single strand. And that strand connects us back to the continent, to Africa. And a lot of the histories that I'm talking about in my work are referring to that, our connection to our culture, to our heritage, to our ancestry. A lot of the work that I do may be very large or scale up the wall.
In this way, they'll literally force the viewer to look up to black here. So I'm always trying to create these systems where we look at our hair as art, as something powerful, something to be respected, something that takes up space in these galleries, in these museums that has historically kind of excluded us from taking up space in that way and that our hair connects us to this larger history artist added Banh Mi Balibo.
Still to come, because it doesn't suit me.
Cape Hope conquers the U.S. charts.
Several thousand university students in Belarus have marked the first day of term by marching through the capital Minsk, to demand the resignation of President Alexander Lukashenko. They've been sounding horns and chanted fascists and insult. Mr. Lukashenko has levelled at the opposition. Jonah Fisher is at the demonstrations.
This was supposed to be the first day of university here in Belarus, but many of the students, instead of being in classes, have gone on strike. The authorities have been trying their hardest to stop the students marching in the streets. We watched this morning as a group was set on by riot police, dressed all in black and with black balaclavas on. They dragged the students away and put them in minivans and took them away. But that hasn't deterred other students from coming out.
The group that we are with at the moment in the center of Minsk, maybe 5000 strong chanting Long live Belarus.
Jonah Fisher in Minsk. It is September the 1st. And as we've been hearing for much of the world, it's the first day of a new school year, but it will be back to school with a difference after six months off because of coronavirus. The pandemic started in Wuhan in China.
And for the authorities there, the day has been addressed with strict precision. This father, Christopher Hill, was told that his four year old daughter would be covered in disinfectant at the school gates.
They have set up a decontamination area at the entrance of the school, so they will do temperature checking. And then you have to go through with more protocol area where they douchy with disinfectant to make sure that your clothes are cleaning. And then you will have to go through hand sanitation. I've checked out the systems that they're using and the disinfectant is not really for strength. It's mixed with water. So it doesn't really affect you, but it does have a little bit of a worry, a worrying notion.
Now, there are a few similar concerns from parents in Russia, though, as Sarah Rainsford reports from Moscow, the authorities there have adopted a relatively relaxed approach to the mass return to the classrooms September.
The first is traditionally a celebration day in Russia with special assemblies and events as children start back at school. But covid-19 means their arrival times will be staggered this year. So there's no big gatherings and children will only mix with their own peer group. In Moscow, 800000 school staff, including caretakers and cleaners, have been tested for covid ahead of their return. The three percent who tested positive kept off work despite approaching the one million mark for coronavirus cases. Many Russians seem fairly relaxed about the pandemic these days, partly because officials constantly stress the relatively low death rate and progress on producing a Russian vaccine.
Sarah Rainsford in Moscow. Well, here in England, the start of the school year coincides with the release of a survey which indicates that many pupils are two to three months behind in their learning because of their time in lockdown.
The government's response that they may have to delay next summer's exams or the survey questioned more than 3000 head teachers for the National Foundation for Education Research.
Its chief executive, Carol Willis, says computers and wi fi are still a problem for many.
We asked senior leaders what proportion of their pupils they thought had access to get it, whether that's a devices or access to broadband. And they said around a quarter of their students didn't have that access. And that was much higher for those from disadvantaged areas, which, of course, restricts the kinds of teaching approaches that teachers can use.
Carol Willis, now, should you wear a mask or not? And if so, where?
Picking your way through the often conflicting advice on how to stay safe from coronavirus is very tricky. France is making things a little easier for its citizens by making masks obligatory in enclosed workspaces. It's come as a significant number of new covid cases in France were linked to nonmedical workplaces.
The rules are complex, but fortunately our Paris correspondent Lucy Williamson has been looking through them for us.
The government has been criticized before in this crisis for not giving clear messages, particularly when it comes to face masks. And when the rules did come out last night, they were indeed pretty complicated. In essence, the government is saying that from today, all shared in closed workspaces require all staff to wear a face mask at all times, with some exceptions. And it's those exceptions that really get a bit complicated. So by and large, they should wear a face mask.
You should stay one metre away. That goes for some external areas outside. It goes for factories, most of them. But you can take it off for short periods at your desk, for example, depending on where in the country you're working. So if you're in a. Green Zone, where the virus is not actively circulating, there is a list of four things you have to do, including visors and ventilation, things like that. If you're in an orange zone, it's a slightly different situation.
If you're in a red zone like Paris, you have to have four square meters between people. You have to have high levels of ventilation. But even these complicated rules, which are frankly, the business paper here, was calling Kafkaesque more complicated than the rules governing the past participle. It said, you know, even these complicated rules are not very clear because it's some of these exceptions rely on having a room of big volume, things like this. So there's definitely going to be a little bit of jostling and sort of to ing and fro ing as companies work out exactly what this means, how to enforce it, what these exceptions mean.
Lucy Williamson there. Well, there's plenty of jostling on the tennis courts of New York at the moment because the grand slam there has resumed after a number of cancellations caused by the coronavirus pandemic.
But the opening day of the US Open wasn't without its issues. The players are supposed to be in a biosecure bubble, but there has still been a positive test. Nigel Atalay told me more.
The world number 17 para's the player in question, but a number of other players play cards with him shortly before this became apparent. So they're now within a bubble within the bubble and they'll be tested every single day. And the organisers say they won't be removed from the tournament, but they can't use any of the facilities at Flushing Meadow. And France's Cristina Bogdanovich is one of the players involved.
She won her first round match, but she said afterwards she wasn't sure if she'd be allowed to play. And it's now become very difficult because she doesn't know how or if she'll be allowed to prepare for any future games. And she was allowed on court, but nowhere else.
And the world number 13, Johanna Konta, she plays later on today and she says the current situation is a part of life at the moment.
It's as safe as we can get, but it was always going to take us by surprise and be a bit shocking and worrisome. If a player tested positive, myself and the rest of the team are doing the best that we can in terms of keeping distance and just trying to get on with our day to day things.
And Petra Kovacevic of the Czech Republic, one of the favourites, she was another winner in the first round and she says to adapting matches behind closed doors and not having their their families and their coaches inside the stadium. It's just a really odd situation.
Some things which are really had to get too used to to be in a bubble of girls as well. It's something totally different, which I wasn't really doing, you know, going out for coffee and, you know, sit in a Central Park. And so and suddenly this is another option. So that's how it is. And we are all on the same page.
So everybody had to get used to it was really touch and go as to whether or not this is going to go ahead at all with a lot of high profile players, some of the best players in the world pulled out ahead of it.
And now we've seen America's great hope has gone out in the first round, round, round, rather 16 year old Coco girl.
She made a huge impression over the past 12 months, having good runs at both the U.S. Open and Wimbledon. But she was beaten by the Latvian Anastasia Severstal over.
So the U.S. Open has now lost a really potential good news story in the men's draw. Novak Djokovic won. He always seems to win. He's been successful it all 24 of his games so far this year. And in that competition, which has been so much depleted, he is now a massive favorite to win his 18th Grand Slam title and draw level with Rafa Nadal, who, of course, isn't there.
Nigel Athalie. And finally, the South Korean boyband BTX has made history, becoming the first all Korean act to top the US Billboard Hot 100 singles chart. The seven member K pop group is also the first Asian artist in more than 50 years to achieve this feat. Charlotte Gallagher reports.
And Dynamite is the first single by Beats sung entirely in English. It's pastel coloured music video broke YouTube records when it was released, becoming the first to achieve 100 million views in one day. The previous record holders were another kapok pop band, Black Pink. A week on from that achievement, beats are celebrating again after becoming the first all Korean pop act to top the Billboard 100 U.S. singles chart. Three of his albums have hit number one on the U.S. album charts, but this is their first number one single there.
One member, Jimin, said the tears kept coming and he didn't know what to say. Even the South Korean president offered his congratulations, saying the band had achieved a splendid feat. In a sign of how seriously the country takes its musical achievements and cultural exports, he added that the news would bring consolation to Koreans suffering from the national crisis. Caused by covid-19 Tom-Tom just off the wall.
Charlotte Galica reporting there, and that's all from us for now.
But there will be an updated version of the Global News podcast later. If you want to comment on this podcast, all the topics we've covered and it you can send us an email. The address is Global Podcast at BBC, DOT Code UK. I'm Nick Miles. And until next time, goodbye.