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Welcome to Stuff You Missed in History Class A production of I Heart Radio. Hello and welcome to the podcast, I'm Tracy B. Wilson. And I'm Holly Fahri. Welcome to part two of our year end unearthed from the year 2020.
And this episode, we've got art and music and edibles and potables and some exclamations and some repatriations. And as we typically do, we have a collection of fines that don't really relate to each other. But I found them all to be interesting and I have grouped them together as popery and that is where we will start. So this fall, Jessie Sir Phillipi at Skyler Mansion State historic site in New York, published as odious and immoral a thing Alexander Hamilton's hidden history as an enslaver.
So as is clear by that title, this paper upends the popular idea that Hamilton was at heart an abolitionist, or at the very least, he did not personally enslave anyone. Before this point, it was generally agreed that Hamilton had acted as a middleman, arranging transactions for other enslavers. But most of the time he was also characterized as participating in this only with extreme reluctance. Sir Phillipi conducted her research through primary source materials, including Hamilton's cashbook, where she found individual line items that included income from an enslaved person being hired out to somebody else, as well as the cash value of servants tabulated after Hamilton's death.
So particularly in the north, the term servants was often used to describe enslaved people. So if you're just doing sort of a straight reading of old documents, it's not always clear when the word servant means a free servant or an enslaved person. However, free servants would not have been included in a property list with a cash value as they were in this case.
Sir Philip, full paper is available online and it is well worth a read. Here is just a brief tidbit. Quote, A thorough study of the depths of Hamilton's involvement in the institution of slavery has yet to be done. Through a close examination of Alexander Hamilton's cash books, various letters to and from Hamilton letters to Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton from her father, Philip Schuyler, and other related primary accounts. When those sources are fully considered, a rarely acknowledged truth becomes inescapably apparent.
Not only did Alexander Hamilton enslave people, but his involvement in the institution of slavery was essential to his identity, both personally and professionally. The denial and obscuration of these facts in nearly every major biography written about him over the past two centuries has erased the people he enslaved from history. It has also created and perpetuated a false and incomplete picture of Hamilton as a man and founding father.
Once again, the title of that paper is As Odious and Immoral a Thing Alexander Hamilton's Hidden History as an Enslaver.
Moving on. This next find was unearthed in September, but it did not hit my radar until October. Crews at the historic Detroit Hotel in St. Petersburg, Florida, found a forgotten elevator still totally intact, except for the cables, along with an abandoned stairwell, a fireplace and the hotel's original switchboard. This elevator was a particularly serendipitous find because the work that was being done when it was unearthed was to turn the space into a steampunk themed brewpub and pizzeria.
So an old cave elevator, complete with cranks and gears and whatnot, just fits right into that theme. Perfection. The Detroit Hotel was Saint Petersburg's first hotel, and when it was built, it had 40 rooms. That means its capacity was more than the entire population of the town at the time. In other news, according to research published in the journal Scientific Reports, the Maya city of to Call had a large scale water filtration system that used some of the same materials that are part of water filtration systems today.
So the two thousand year old filtration system that was built at the Oriental Reservoir and it used coarse sand crystal in courts and zeolite, which were brought into the area from nearly 20 miles away. And at this point, this is the oldest known zeolite water purification system in the world since the city was built on top of porous limestone, access to a reservoir was critical to its survival. This combination of minerals in the filtration system would have removed heavy metals, microbes and nitrogen rich compounds.
Next up, archaeologists working at Stoke Mandeville ahead of the. High speed transportation project to have found what they believe to be which marks at the Church of St. Mary, they're the first structure at the church, was built in ten seventy. And then additions were made to it. Over the next few hundred years, the fines that have been described as which marks feature drilled holes that are surrounded with radiating lines. And so the idea with these kinds of marks was that witches or malevolent spirits would get trapped in these lines, although the same design could have been used as a sundial.
The places where these were found to make that unlikely, they were not in any right spot or at the right angle for the sun to hit them in any way. But it is possible that they started out as sundials, but were then repurposed as part of the building later on. Next up, archaeologists with a project at Colonial Williamsburg have finished the first phase of their work at the Nassau Street location of Williamsburg First Baptist Church. Enslaved and free black people first formed this congregation all the way back in 1776.
It was one of the first black churches in the country. They started out meeting at a brush arbor and then in a carriage house before the church building itself was first dedicated in 1856. And the building was expanded over the years, including, in addition in 1893 and an annex in 1953. The 1893 edition had been home to the church's altar and its pulpit. And then the church moved into a totally different building in 1956. In addition to foundations and bricks, the team also found thousands of artifacts that are now being analyzed, along with evidence of two graves.
The second phase of excavation work is expected to resume in January and will go on for about 18 months.
An organization called the First Baptist Church, Nassau Street Descendants, formed during this work, and its members include people who worshipped at this historic church or whose parents or grandparents or other ancestors did so. In addition to analyzing its files from phase one, the archaeological team is also working with the church and this organization on how to plan out the second phase, basically finding out what are your goals also from this work and how should we approach it from here. This isn't the only work going on in Williamsburg.
A multi-year project at property belonging to John Custis, the fourth father in law of Martha Washington, is ongoing and has recently unearthed architectural features and boundary ditches and other news.
Renovation of the third, who died in 1917, was the last sovereign of Madagascar. France annexed Madagascar in 1895 and exiled the royal family two years later. One of the employees of the royal family was Clara Herbert, and one of her descendants inherited this box of things like postcards, photographs, receipts and souvenirs, as well as the pink satin and burgundy cotton velvet gown that belonged to the queen's aunt. On December 8th, Madagascar's government purchased the items at auction for forty three thousand pounds.
British. The government plans to install them in the Queen's Palace for public display.
There are some articles online that kind of walk through all the different postcards, sort of how they they pieced together the last years of the of the monarch's life and our last kind of random random inclusion in this popery. Archeologists in the Netherlands have discovered an enormous mass grave from the late Middle Ages, and this grave contained the bones of at least 20 people who appear to have been young men between the ages of 15 and 30. And they also found a whole lot of males suggesting that these people were originally buried in wooden boxes or coffins that had since disintegrated.
It's totally unclear at this point how these bodies came to be there or what happened to them, in part because they haven't been conclusively dated yet. But this area used to be the moat of Botstein Castle, which was built in the 14th century and was largely destroyed by fire at the end of the 17th century.
And the most logical conclusion would probably be that it was an army of some kind, but don't really know yet.
And now we're going to take a quick break before we move on to some other things. We have elected scoundrels in America because because the people have said, well, at least there are scoundrel, but then it comes back in the end to correct. I think so.
I think so. In 1987, David Frost sat down with then Senator Joe Biden for an over two hour interview at age 44. Biden was making his first bid for the presidency just as the Reagan years were coming to an end.
This president, the thing that I disagree with him most about is the way he has divided this nation.
Biden would end his campaign just weeks after the interview was recorded and the tapes were never made public until now. But the harder test is it's not the one. Can I do it better than my opponent? The harder test, when everyone goes to bed and you're sitting in this library by yourself and you ask yourself, how can I be the kind of president that I think America should have? Can I be the kind of president that Abraham Lincoln was? Can I be the kind of president Franklin Roosevelt was?
Can I can I be a great president? Listen to this, never before at Joe Biden interview, only on the Frost Tapes podcast.
Well, I'm not sure I'd like to talk about that. Have you written a book and need some insight into what comes next? Or are you passionate about cooking and want to know how to make it your career? Or maybe you just want to hear insider stories about the entertainment industry? Either way, we've got you covered with the two guys from Hollywood podcast. I'm Alan Dovid, the literary agent and talent manager. And I'm Joey Santos, a columnist and celebrity chef.
And on our podcast, Two Guys from Hollywood, we bring our expertise to the table with, of course, delicious cocktails and all kinds of recipes for you to try at home. So grab a drink and join us. We've got a wide range of celebrity guests and Hollywood insiders to discuss pop culture, publishing and entertainment. And we'll provide you with an unfiltered and sometimes brutally honest show about Hollywood. As we like to say, we don't dish. We serve, listen and follow two guys from Hollywood on the I Heart radio app, Apple podcast, or wherever you listen to podcast.
We'll talk to you soon.
Our next few other things are about art and architecture and the first one, archaeologists have found tens of thousands of rock paintings on cliff faces in Columbia, South America, in a find that people have dubbed the Sistine Chapel of the Ancients. These paintings are about twelve thousand five hundred years old, and their subjects include numerous now extinct animals, including mastodons and giant slots. There are also handprints, geometric shapes, fish, birds, lizards, turtles and human figures, some of them so high up that researchers could only get a look at them by using drones.
They also found pieces of ochre that may have been used to produce the artwork.
Next up, we have a little historical context setting before we talk about the actual find. 1986 Danish, King Canute, the fourth and his brother Benedict were both murdered in Odense of Denmark at the time. The monarchy and the church were extremely closely connected and the king had tried to institute a mandatory with many of the nobility, really opposed this plan and they rose up against him. So he and his whole retinue were murdered in St. Albans Church. And then a few years later, Canute was sanctified and the church was rededicated as Saint Commute's Cathedral.
And thirteen hundred canoes and his brother were both enshrined in the cathedral with silk and linen textiles lining both of their shrines. And in the 16th century, in the wake of the Protestant Reformation, the shrines were walled up within the church to hide them. But later on it was discovered that the King's Textiles were missing. In 1874, both shrines were examined in preparation for putting them on display, and Benedict's shrine contained far more valuable textiles.
People were like, why were the most beautiful and expensive textiles in the brothers tomb? So as people were preparing these shrines for display, they decided to move the best textiles from Benedicts shrine into a shrine so that the king's shrine would look more properly adorned. But that left a lot of really unanswered questions about what had happened to the King's Textiles in the first place. Presumably at some point they were just stolen. And also whether his brother's textiles dated back to when they were originally enshrined or whether they were replacements, there's still a lot of stuff that people didn't really know about this.
These textiles at this point, chemical analysis of the remaining textiles has confirmed that they are all the same age and that their age suggests that they really are the original textiles. It is likely that they were imported from southern Italy.
Next, we have a thing that like I just inexplicably love, and that's about an interdisciplinary team of researchers has been studying the microbiomes of seven drawings by Leonardo da Vinci. When they did this, they expected to find a lot of fungi because it's generally believed that fungi are the dominant microorganism when it comes to art on paper. And since fungus can be really destructive to works of art, there has been a lot of research into these particular organisms. But the researchers were surprised that instead they found a whole lot more bacteria with many of the species of bacteria typical for being part of the human microbiome.
So their conclusion is that these bacteria were transferred to the drawings during handling and restoration, and they also identified other bacteria that are more commonly found in the microbiomes of insects. So these may have come from flies and other insects crawling around on or maybe defecating on the artwork, disrespectful insects.
There was also a lot of human DNA. Whether any of it belongs to Leonardo da Vinci is not known. But much of it, again, most likely came from all those years of handling. All of this work was completed using a sequencing technology known as nonsupport.
Last time we did a an unearthed episode, we talked about a mosaic. We have a different mosaic to talk about this time. Archaeologists at Chesworth, Roman Villa and Gloucestershire, England, have found the first ever mosaic there that can be dated all the way back to the 5th century because mosaic tiles often aren't made from organic material that can be used for carbon 14 dating. They can be kind of hard to conclusively date unless there's other stuff in the area.
It's a reference. In this case, they used pieces of charcoal and bone in one of the buildings found. And trenches to make that determination, the mosaic dates two decades after Britain ceased to be part of the Roman Empire, and it upends some commonly held beliefs about what happened in Britain at that point. It has long been assumed that Britain faced an enormous economic collapse and that most of the villas and towns that had been associated with the empire were immediately abandoned and fell into disrepair.
While the mosaic itself is of somewhat poorer quality than ones created during the Roman era, its existence also suggests that works like this were still being created. So that economic shift was less immediate and less linear. And the words of Martin Papworth, the National Trust archaeologist, quote, It is generally been believed that most of the population turn to subsistence farming to sustain themselves. And after the break with Rome, Britannia's administrative system broke down into a series of local fiefdoms.
What is so exciting about the dating of this mosaic at Chesworth is that it is evidence for a more gradual decline. The creation of a new room and the laying of a new floor suggests wealth and a mosaic industry continuing 50 years later than had been expected.
OK, this next one is not about art or architecture, but it is connected to the same period that we just discussed. In twenty eighteen two metal detectorists, Sue and Mick Washington found a pair of bronze bowls in Buckinghamshire, England and alerted the Portable Antiquities Scheme, which is a project that records archaeological finds made by members of the public and excavation followed that unearthed a bronze vessel, Iron Spearheads and a grave. So this grave was excavated in August and the findings were announced in October.
The person buried there was very tall for the time, and the items buried with him included a sword, a very well preserved scabbard spears, bronze and glass vessels and fittings and decorative elements. So this person has been nicknamed the Marleau warlord and the remains date back to the 6th century, like the mosaic that we just talked about. This burial site has offered up some new information about the region after the Roman era. In the words of Dr Gábor Thomas, quote, What we found exceeded all our expectations and provides new insights into this stretch of the Temse in the decades after the collapse of the Roman administration in Britain.
So the nature of the burials suggests that it was someone of importance, the first such burial to be found in the midterms basin rather than the Upper Thames or London. The midterms was believed to be a border area resting in between powerful tribal groups, but this suggests that it had powerful residents of its own. Now we are going to move on to the edibles and the potables. And sadly to me, we don't have many actual edibles and potables this time around, as in things that you could physically eat or drink should you choose to, which we definitely do not advise doing.
There's no buck butter, so don't eat the big butter.
We only have one thing that you could put in your mouth, which again, do not. These are some one hundred twenty year old chocolates that belonged to Australian poet and war correspondent Banjo Paterson, which had been commissioned by Queen Victoria to provide a morale boost to soldiers during the Boer War. The chocolates were in a souvenir, tin packed in straw and wrapped in silver foil, and they turned up by surprise in a collection of Patterson's newspaper clippings and personal papers.
That was like, There's chocolates in here. Here's some records and a snack. I thought this was all pictures and papers and stuff.
So although that was our only theoretically actual edible object, we do have some research into what various people in the past eight or where they ate a thermopolis or a hot food kiosk has been unearthed in Pompei work around this kiosk started a couple of years ago, but as of December of twenty twenty, it has now been completely unearthed.
Oh boy, has this been a hot subject at our house.
Yeah, I really think this replaced the monolith in terms of the things people this has been so popular.
Like periodically I'll be during the holiday break, I would be like, am I so agree? Or something just puttering around and all of a sudden my husband would zoom into the room and tell me the latest thing he had read. He's very worried about the dogs.
The Thermopolis was basically a fast food eatery selling hot foods from vessels that rested in holes in the top of the counter. It's also decorated, including pictures of mallards and a rooster, which may have advertised the kind of food served there in a. Addition to just being very pretty, there is also a nymph riding a seahorse, which is probably not meant to be a menu item. And like many other parts of Pompeii, it had been scrawled with graffiti.
Yes. And Holly also just referenced there were dog bones.
Well, there's a picture of a dog with a picture of a dog on a leash. I thought there was. Oh, I think there's a there was a set there are some sets of remains in the area. And it was one of the things like we don't actually was the proprietor, was it a customer or was it a random passer by? Yeah, there is a picture of a dog on a leash. I forgot about that part. Yeah.
And we were discussing and many people online have been discussing, does that mean that they served dog is one of their things? Will they also have this mermaid situation? I think there was. I'm completely talking off the top of my head at this point, but I think there was a similar image of a dog on a leash found somewhere else that suggested more that they were like pets then then something that would be on the menu. I don't know if that's just modern humans trying to negotiate with the past in a way that makes it palatable.
Yeah, or maybe maybe maybe they have treats for your dog.
Maybe it's hot food for you and your pup and scruffy.
Yeah. Uh, anyway, other fines that were in this area included a ladle and amphora and an oil container and some flasks, lots of things that you might expect to find at an eatery of some sort.
Archaeologists have used the residues in dental tartar to study what people in the Levant were eating 3700 years ago. And they found evidence that at least some people's diets included turmeric, bananas and soy, suggesting that these foods are being traded from South and East Asia much earlier than people previously thought. Yeah, like the fact that people had these residues in their teeth does suggest that maybe this trade was already well established. But they did also only find evidence of these specific foods and some of the remains they studied and not all of them.
So it's possible there were class distinctions involved, very different dietary tastes. Also, another possible explanation is that these particular people were travelers from Asia who had traveled into the area carrying the evidence of what they used to eat from their earlier life with them. So that's a little interesting, but not totally clear yet. Next up, research published in the Journal of Archaeological Science has examined the diets of people in the Indus Valley civilization through lipid residues on pottery.
And some of these findings were surprising. They found a lot of residues from non ruminant animals like pigs, far more than would be suggested by the volume of pig remains that in this valley settlements. There's also evidence of a lot of dairy animals at these sites, but not as much evidence of the use of dairy in the lipid residues. The reasons for these disparities completely unclear at this time. We're still figuring it out. Yeah, to move on the paper.
The prehistoric roots of Chinese cuisines, mapping staple food systems of China, 6000 B.C. to 220 880, which was published in November, studied two thousand four hundred forty eight human skeletal samples from one hundred and twenty eight different archaeological sites across China. They used isotopic indicators to figure out what these people had eaten. The remains covered a span of 6000 years, and the team found that prior to two thousand BCE food staples in China were differentiated between people in the north and the south, generally speaking.
But then after that point, the differences were more between the east and the West. In the words in their press release, quote, They argue that the early north south divide was driven by environmental differences that favored different plant resources in wetland versus arid regions. While the later East-West division was driven by differences in cultural practice with Eastern cooking habits of boiling and steaming less suited to adopting new cereals like wheat and barley. So according to this research, about eight thousand years ago, people in northern China ate millet.
But people in southern China were more likely to eat nuts, tubers, fruits and rice. That was just the sorts of things that grew best there. But later on, as other grains were introduced in China, preferences started shifting along this more of an east west pattern related to how people prepared the food since the which foods grew best was not as much of an issue anymore. In Eastern Asia, it became more common to boil and steam grains, while in West Asia it was more common to grind those grains into flour.
So when wheat and barley were introduced, they were more readily adapted in places where people were already used to grinding grains into flour. And our last food finds before we take a break, archaeologists in the Netherlands have unearthed the ruins of a fort that was used during the 80 years war. And this fort has a connection to local food lore as the story goes. During the siege of Layton and 1074, Spanish troops fled the fort and they left behind a pot of simmering stew.
Cornelis Yappin Zun found this stew, which had been made from parsnips and carrots and then carried it out to the beggars who had been helping in the defense against the Spanish.
Today, the Dutch stew called Hot, which is made from carrots, onions and potatoes, which are boiled and mashed, is traditionally served on October 3rd.
In reference to all of this, some of the finds of the fort include part of a Moat's as well as pewter utensils, drinking vessels, pottery and fishing line. Now we will take one more quick add break and before we move on to some musical finds. Hey, yo, what up is just hilarious, and I'm here to tell ya that I'm launching my pockets carefully reckless on the Black Affect network. I'ma be telling you all my business and some of your other people's business, too.
And ain't no limits to the things that talk about, you know, that if y'all know me from baby mama drama to healthy relationships, from child support to stimulus checks, look, when you take a step back and you realize that we all go through crazy stuff and we got stories to tell, those situations do not define you, but they do make for a real good conversation.
In a world where click bait and cancel calls, you can tell your story before you do. I'm creating the outlet to remind people that we still human crazy and we can all laugh about it. Don't stress over it. Bring your problems to me. I promise I won't judge you, but I might crack a joke.
Don't be scared. It'll be respectful and messy at the same time. Just make sure you tune in and listen to Carefully Reckless on January 20th on the hot radio app, Apple podcast or wherever you get your podcast. I'm Alec Baldwin. Listen to my podcast, here's the thing I heart radio, it's my chance to talk with artists, policy makers and performers like the actress Kristen Bell.
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We have a couple of fines related to music, and the first is a pair of wax cylinders suggest that the music industry in Los Angeles got its start earlier than previously believed.
Music collector John Lennon bought these cylinders, which were part of a box of other assorted items. One of the cylinders contains a recording of the song Yankee Doodle, which is, quote, played by Mr. Fred Kimball for the Los Angeles Phonograph Company of Los Angeles, California.
That part of the recording before this point, the first recording label in the area was believed to be Naude Skog records established in Santa Monica in 1921, but written references to a Los Angeles phonograph. Parlor's goes back to 1893. It was already known that they sold and promoted phonographs, but this is the first evidence that they may have also made and distributed recordings.
This is all still a little tenuous, though wax cylinders are easy to fake and these were unmarked.
I'm certainly not accusing this collector of faking anything, but really it can be very difficult to conclusively determine when and where they came from. Our other musical find is a missing song, kind of from The Muppet Christmas Carol, which has now been rediscovered. Again, kind of the song was called When Love Is Gone, and it was cut from the film's cinematic release out of concerns that it wouldn't appeal to young viewers. It was something that Director Brian Henson agreed to only if the song would be included for television, broadcast and home theater release.
So when The Muppet Christmas Carol came out on VHS, the song was still in there. But years later, when the DVD release of the movie was being prepared, the original master that included When Love is Gone was missing. So the DVD version had to go out without the song as part of the film itself. But in more recent months, when the film was being remastered for Fourcade, they found an old copy.
So it is back. I was intending over the break to get my DVD copy of The Muppet Christmas Carol and because I think it's like one of the extras, the audio of the song, I did not confirm that stuff that I meant to do over break and did not do.
Now we will move on to some exhumations, some of which are also updates. Last time on Unearthed, we talked about an effort to exhume the body of President Warren G. Harding to confirm the ancestry of his grandson, James Blaesing something that no one was really questioning at this point in December of Marion County. Family Court judge in Ohio denied this request for the exhumation, citing earlier letters as evidence that the Harding family has already accepted placing as their relatives so not needed in another exhumation.
A massive excavation project is underway in England in that old gem ahead of highway work remains of an estimated. Nineteen thousand people need to be relocated in Trinity burial ground. In whole, they would be moved to a different part of the same burial ground just out of the way of the construction. So a huge tent has been erected over the site for this work. And then because of the pandemic, archaeologists who are working on the project are observing social distancing while they do all this whole thing.
At least eighty five different archaeologists are expected to be part of this work. It is a massive exhumation and reburial project.
Next, we're talking about an exhumation that is not new. But the details on Roger Casement's exhumation in 1965 have been released as part of an ongoing project to release official documents related to Irish foreign policy. This project is a joint effort of the Royal Irish Academy, the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and the National Archives of Ireland. Its 12th volume of documents covers the years 1961 to 1965, and that was released in November of twenty.
Diplomat Paul Keating observed the exhumation and wrote a memo about it, which is in this collection. His account begins, quote, Two teams of prison officials dug steadily and at about seven thirty were surprised to come across a layer of lime immediately below. It was a very thick mud and water floating. On top of it, there appeared two small black objects, which, on examination by a doctor, turned out to be two bones of the thumb. From there, he describes the site being so waterlogged that they had to send for a pump.
But he also expresses some confidence that they were able to retrieve all of the bones that could have survived both the lime and the decades of being in this waterlogged grave. After this A. Summation Casement's remains were returned to Ireland and reburied prior hosts of the show did an episode on Casement's in 2012.
We also have a few repatriations and returns to talk about this time. In 2002, Pat Patterson bought a Korean painting at an estate sale. The workers who were arranging the sale had found the painting behind a dresser between pieces of cardboard, and it was accompanied by a letter saying it had been painted by Kim Jong do with calligraphy done by CogState. Huang Patterson did years of work to figure out where the painting had come from. Eventually tracing it to Eugene Kuhn, who had bought it in 1953 while he was serving in the Korean War.
In November, Patterson returned it to the Danwon Art Museum in South Korea, which is in Kingsly Hwang's hometown. Next up, in October, the Dutch Council for Culture announced a recommendation that Dutch museums return any items that were taken from their countries of origin during the Dutch colonial era. If there's reasonable certainty that these items were taken by force, so this generally spans the whole period between the early 17th century and 1975, and this direction could apply to as many as 100000 items that are currently in museum collections.
Although this recommendation specifically applied to places where the Netherlands had colonies, the council also recommended that museums take another look at objects that came from other parts of the world, especially if those objects could have some kind of religious, cultural or historic importance.
So the Dutch museum community seems to have been generally receptive to these recommendations, at least based on what I've read. But when it comes to culturally important items that were not stolen, the idea of returning them continues to be a much more contentious subject.
Next up, a Horsehead sculpture, which was one of 12 animal head sculptures stolen from China during the second Opium War has now been returned. British and French troops looted China's old summer palace in 1860. Before that point, the bronze horsehead had been one of the Chinese zodiac sculptures that topped a water clock in the Royal Garden.
This piece actually made its way to China in 2019, and at this point, eight of the 12 sculptures have been found and returned. But this horsehead is the only ones who would then be restored and put on display in its original home in Beijing.
And that is the part of this that happened in twenty twenty four toay Moco, which are preserved.
Tattooed Maori heads were returned to New Zealand in October after their courier spent two weeks in quarantine because of the covid-19 pandemic. They were taken to the museum where they were greeted with a Maori welcoming ceremony.
So these are ancestors and all four of them had been held in collections in Germany, two of them at the Berlin Ethnological Museum and two at Goodkind University. And these are four of at least 800 that were removed from New Zealand between 1770 and 1840. About 600 of them have been returned through the museum's repatriation program.
At this point, it is not yet known exactly whose ancestors these four toay Moco are. So they are being held at the museum while further research is done.
And now we are coming to the end of our unearthed for the end of twenty twenty. And once again, we don't have any new ABC News. We are going to end on something that's kind of connected. 5000 year old skeletal remains buried in a squatting position were discovered in Germany in May. The find has been nicknamed The Lady of Byetta cow, and she lived at about the same time as Utsu the Iceman, whose well-preserved remains were discovered on the border of Austria and Italy in 1991.
In November, the team working with these remains announced some of the findings from their work. She was between 30 and forty five years old at the time of her death, and her teeth show an enormous amount of wear, some to the point of being missing entirely, which may have been caused by the presence of a lot of tough grains in her diet. Although serious dental problems can be life threatening, it's not yet clear whether this contributed to her cause of death.
So that is our year end unearthed for the year 2020. Which I don't know if these are fun to pull together, yeah, but it was it was weird to have a lengthy break between when I put a bunch of stuff into the document and when I finished after returning to work after the holidays. How do you feel about listener mail after returning to work after the holidays?
Well, as we said on Monday's episode, there's a lot of it to still read. I have one from Daniel.
Daniel wrote in to say, I was recently listening to your O'Henry episode, and you mentioned O'Henry bars as unclear in Origin. Here where I live in Kansas, there's a small town called Dexter. Dexter lays claim to two small pieces of national history. There is a small park with an oil well that never struck oil, but instead a natural gas that did not burn. It turned out to be the first helium. Well, the second is a small metal building called Henries Candy Company, Henries Handmaids.
Candy, to this day, they have large glass viewing walls where you can watch. They claim the original O'Henry bar was made by them in 1919. They sell their own O'Henry, Mama Henry and Baby Henry bars and hard candies. They make themselves as well as bulk packaged candy. Thanks for your work. You are one of my go to podcasts, one of the few podcasts I've found that I don't have to worry about my three year old overhearing due to language.
And since you seem to like animals, I attached a picture of Flyn writer, my daughter's nine month old cat that seems to prefer the parents over the children. Sigh Daniel one.
I love the name Flynn Rider. For a cat, there may not be a better moniker too. That'll change as the kids get older. Cats like to be able to control their approach and adults are not as likely to be unpredictable and crabby. That's all it is. Yeah.
Yeah. So thank you so much for that letter and for those great pictures. If you would like to write to us about this or any other podcast, read history podcast that I heart radio dot com. We are also all over social media history. That's where you'll find our Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest and Instagram. And you can subscribe to our show on Apple podcasts, I heart radio app and anywhere else you get your podcast.
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