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I'm Valerie Syverson. And in the early hours of Saturday, the 27th of March, these are our main stories. A major report into the role France played in the Rwandan genocide has criticized French failures, saying the country was blind to the preparation of the massacre of 800000 people. Search and rescue operation has been taking place in southern Egypt, where more than 30 people were killed when two trains collided.
They can't remove the people from underneath the trains. It's a shame. Look at the children. We need a crane. People are dead. We can't even save the ones who are alive.
A one point six billion dollar lawsuit has been brought against Fox News by the company it accused on air of interfering with votes cast in last year's U.S. presidential election. Also in this podcast, we're in Tanzania, where the former president, John Magufuli, has been laid to rest in his hometown of Chatto nine days after the government said he died from heart disease.
And later, UCU first. You smell it when you work in a bakery. And then you said the man behind the counter pilot, and then she give you a baguette and what you do with it, you get your finger and the first thing you do is you don't even know. You do it with the squeeze on you.
France nominates its beloved baguette for inclusion on UNESCO's Cultural Heritage Register. We begin this podcast in France, where a major report on the country's role at the time of the genocide in Rwanda in 1994 has strongly criticized the failures of the country's establishment. The commission of experts put in place on the orders of President Emmanuel Macron, said France for overwhelming responsibilities in relation to the killing of members of Rwanda's minority Tutsis and moderate Hutus in a frenzy of violence over 100 days, more than 800000 people were massacred.
Lindsey Hilsum was in Kigali for the BBC at the time.
I've seen some of the most terrible things today that I've ever seen. It's been absolutely horrific. The killings, the random killings, the soldiers going around in groups of youths with knives, I'm afraid. I think that's still going on. So even though it may sound quieter, I have a horrible feeling it's in the suburbs of Kigali. That doesn't mean that things are better at all. In fact, it may mean that things are even worse.
That was Rwanda 27 years ago. Our Paris correspondent Hugh Scofield told me more about the report.
It's particularly damning in its criticism of President Mitterrand, who was president at the time, not only his criticize, his assessment of Rwandan politics, which he said was heavily influenced by a kind of blinkered Francophone view of the world where he saw that the Hutus under President Habyarimana were good because supporting French and the Tutsi rebels were bad because English speaking for Ugandan represented a kind of Anglo British interest in the continent, and that this sort of vision, this interpretation of events became obsessive and that the other feeling was that he then took over policy.
Mitterrand ran policy from from the Ellies. It became a really big deal for him. And so all the conventional and irregular channels of power and communication, diplomatic, military, intelligence, were taken over by the president. And anyone who suggested other interpretations was simply ignored. And all that created the ground for the genocide in the south. They certainly do not accuse the French of genocide or even complicity in genocide, but they do accuse them of a responsibility in ignoring signs which were clearly there about the radical nature of some in that regime.
I mean, President Mitterrand dead, of course, now, isn't he? I mean, how will this report be viewed by the French authorities in the present? Do you think?
Well, I mean, look, it's not a huge surprise. I mean, that the French were there. There's been plenty of criticism of the French over the years and this interpretation that it was a mitro dovetailing a personal contact with Habyarimana friendship with him, with, you know, classic preserving French interest in Africa and that blind him, linking him to the reality of what was going on. That's not new. What's new is that it's from historians who are respected, who've consulted acres of documents and archives.
And so this is very, very authoritative and will undoubtedly go down as a sort of definitive text on France's role, as well as the question now is, will it heal any historic wounds?
Because Rwanda has long accused France of being complicit, isn't it, in what happened back in the 1990s?
Well, indeed. And the relations with Kigali now have, you know, not not great. Have they been turning up and down as time goes by and it's more kind of sort of self exploratory analysis like this come out? Clearly, that will help to build bridges of understanding. And certainly Macron's desire, as with the Algerian War, is to take a hard, dispassionate look at the evidence and to come to conclusions, not to point fingers, not to blame anyone.
As you say, Mitros long dead. It really doesn't matter anymore that there are some players still around. But simply to kind of get that kind of a peace, that peaceful, shared interpretation of what happened so that people can start building bridges again.
You scourfield. In Egypt, an operation has been underway to try and free people trapped by a collision between two trains in the southern province of Sohag. More than 30 people are known to have died and scores more were injured when several carriages derailed and overturned. Dozens of ambulances were sent to the scene. This man arrived there shortly after the crash.
I think we need an official to come and see what has happened.
They can't remove the people from underneath the trains. It's a shame. Look at the children. We need a crane.
But they said it's an eyesore. People are dead. We can't even save the ones who are alive. From Cairo, our correspondent Sally Nabeel to Lismore.
Apparently the two trains were on one track. And what official statements say is that a group of unidentified men pulled the emergency brakes on one of the two trains, causing both trains to collide. So the initial assessment is that it is a deliberate act. But the statement didn't elaborate. And we are expecting more details later about the accident, by all means, is horrific. And pictures and videos we are getting from the scene are absolutely heartbreaking and they are very chaotic.
People are so angry, they are screaming. We understand there are people still trapped under the wreckage. Medical teams have been flown from Cairo to Suhag, and it is one of Egypt's poorest provinces. It lacks the very basic services. The prime minister has already visited the scene and he visited the wounded in hospitals. So it is a very tragic day for Egyptians.
And these were two passenger trains. Were they packed?
Yes, apparently they were packed. And usually trains heading to the south are used by lower middle class and upper class people. And that collision caused an uproar on social media. Users are saying it is usually the poor who pay the price for chronic problems that never get fixed by the government. And it's worth mentioning that train crashes happen quite often in Egypt. They happen frequently over the past two or three decades. And ministers and officials keep promising reforms, keep promising directing funds into the transportation system.
But none of these promises materialize. Accidents keep happening and many lives are lost. Sally Neville.
Six months after the war in the enclave of Nagorno Karabakh broke out, the reverberations are still being felt. Armenia, which lost, has been gripped by political instability and demonstrations. And the country's prime minister has announced that fresh elections will be held in June, with the Armenian army forced to pull out of the region. Russia now has some 2000 peacekeepers on the ground. As our correspondent John Official reports, the Kremlin has significantly increased its influence in the region.
We drive towards Armenia's border with Nagorno Karabakh, with the Armenian army pulling out, it's now 2000 Russian peacekeepers who act as the guarantor of the increased security.
I'm now at what's known as the Latin corridor. It is perhaps the most crucial point in this new peace agreement, this road. And it's a fabulously winding road that leads down a valley and up to the other side. This road is the only link between Armenia, the outside world and this ethnic Armenian enclave of Nagorno Karabakh. Now, since the war, the Armenians no longer control who and what uses this road. There's a Russian military checkpoint is about.
500 meters from where I am now, it's up to the Russian military who comes in and out of the enclave, and that basically means that the Russians call the shots around here.
We're denied permission to enter and are told privately that the Russians are now blocking almost all foreigners.
It's a real pain that we have to talk like this rather than in person, Mr. Biglari.
And that evening, we speak to a Nagorno Karabakh official attack by Gloriant on a WhatsApp call, hasn't gone to Karabakh to become another one of these little states that we see in this part of the world which are occupied by Russia.
No, actually, no.
Actually, there is no occupation by Russia. There is Russian peacekeeping forces here in Arzak in order to protect our life and our security.
So you're happy to have Russia there? It's better than having Azerbaijan occupy you.
We are happy to leave and we are happy to live in our own land and to continue our struggle for our independence.
Independence, the war and the deployment of peacekeepers has returned Russia to a pivotal role in the Southern Caucasus. And that's not all. Russia analyst Serguei Markov says Armenia's painful experience has delivered a powerful message to other leaders in the post-Soviet space.
Russian influence had been increased after this peace deal not only inciters about Iran and Armenia, but also in other countries as well because of our countries. Now, because the lesson if you have an American puppet as your leader of your country, you will lose your territory.
The so-called American puppet is Nicole Palestinian, Armenia's prime minister. He came to power in a popular uprising three years ago and has shouldered much of the blame for the loss of Karabakh.
There have been several months of demonstrations in Yerevan against Mr. Palestinian critics, such as opposition politician Levon's Arabian, say he should have maintained better relations with Moscow and given Azerbaijan's alliance with Turkey, made concessions to try to avoid war, despite all of these facts could possibly chose to reject the peace proposals that were negotiated.
So that was a huge diplomatic failure that actually brought a catastrophe to Armenia and Russia, not Armenia is now Nagorno Karabakh Saeki relationship.
Moscow will ultimately have to decide if it wants a long term military presence protecting the Armenian enclave. If not, Azerbaijan will surely get its way and take control of all of Nagorno Karabakh. Jonah Fisher.
While the world's coronavirus vaccine drive continues, the political and commercial arguments are also ongoing. France's foreign minister has warned that countries should not use blackmail in order to get their populations vaccinated. Tsarnaev, that are also suggested to a radio interviewer that Britain had a problem with delivering second doses of vaccine. From Paris, here's Ricky Williamson.
Johnny of Latvian was quizzed by the presenter as to whether Europe had been scammed by sending vaccines to the UK and not receiving any in return. He said that while the UK took pride in having vaccinated a lot of people with their first jabs, they had a problem delivering the second. We need to build a cooperative relationship with the UK, Mr Latvians said, so that AstraZeneca fulfills its commitment to the EU. But one can't play with blackmail, having given a lot of first jabs and then run into problems with the second.
The EU shouldn't be paying the price for that policy, he said. He hoped to come to an agreement, saying it would be staggering to have a vaccine war between the UK and the EU.
Lucy Williamson. Well, let's stay in France, where the baguette has been chosen as the country's candidate for UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Status intelligence analyst, including the sauna culture in Finland, a lantern festival in South Korea and a grass wooing competition in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The baguette, a long loaf of bread, is synonymous with French culture. According to one estimate, some 10 billion baguettes are consumed every year in France. That's around 320 every single second. Gillian Marshall has been speaking to the French baker and author Richard Bertani, who explained that buying a baguette is a cherished ritual.
You go to the bakery there, and what's the first thing you do when you buy your Bayit UCU first? You smell it when you work in a bakery and then you point out, you look at it and then you sit behind the counter out of the bakery, and then she gives you a baguette. And what's the first thing you do with it? When you buy your bag, it will take it home. You know, before that you get your finger and the first thing you do is you don't even know you're doing it.
You give it a squeeze on you. You give it a squeeze. Yeah. And then imagine that biting your finger. You have to squeeze and imagine that what's happening in your stomach just about just to make you can feel something switched on the. Yeah. And that's switched on now you're salivating. I can hear it. And then your brain is switched on. So now you started to digest already. So that baguette already is doing his work because the crunch is everything.
That's what did better if you buy it, which is also often disgusting from a note, which is not a proper broderie, you will never get that. And that's you thing. And then you come out of the bakery, you try to buy at the top the current record it, and then you start chewing on it. And before you arrive home, half of the bakers are gone.
Well, I certainly know that experience, but you seem to be suggesting that that buying a baguette is as important a part of the of the ritual as making it or eating it.
Absolutely, yes, absolutely. In fact, when you go up to every village with two or three Bakary and you may buy your baggage from one bakery, your Quasthoff from another one, because everyone specialized on different things, it's a piece of bread part of your life every day when you leave the house in the morning, you asked the other person or your wife or your husband or your kids who's going to buy the bread for lunch. You cannot come back home without bread.
It's impossible. You can't sit for lunch or dinner without bread. So it's a very big part of our of our tradition.
So French people themselves know how central the baguette is to their heritage.
Does it really need, therefore, to be included on UNESCO's intangible cultural heritage register? Yes, he does, because you need to know that local baker made the bag the traditional way with proper flour and respecting the tradition of making baguette so he's got a right to agree to buy it is the pizza and pizza they'd be protected. There's some bread in Kazakhstan to be protected. We lose them. Otherwise, all my mouth is watering over the thought of that.
Forget French Baker and author Richard Bertani and from bread to wine. Later in the podcast, we'll hear about the French Bordeaux that has just spent a year in outer space.
This is the Global News podcast still to come.
And. Terms of Endearment author Larry McMurtry has died at the age of 84. Correspondent looks back at the career of the American novelist and screenwriter. The US presidential election in 2020 will be remembered for the claims by the incumbent in the White House, Donald Trump, that he'd been cheated out of a second term. He alleged that the voting machines were defective accusations that were broadcast by the U.S. TV network Fox News. Well, now Dominion, the company that produced the election, voting machines, has launched a lawsuit against Fox News for one point six billion dollars, accusing Fox of spreading lies about the election being fraudulent and said it had tried repeatedly to set the record straight but was ignored by Fox News.
I heard more from our Washington correspondent, Gary O'Donahue.
That's what they're alleging, that effectively Fox continued to to spread the lies about these voting machines. And of course, there were lots of stories around at the time about people claiming that the machines were sort of manufactured to count Donald Trump's votes as worth less than Joe Biden's and things like that and made in Venezuela and all that kind of thing. And so they they have already filed various other lawsuits against some individual presenters on the Fox News network. But now they're obviously slapping them with this one point, six billion dollar suit.
So this legal action is going to continue. And they're not the only company that are taking actions by other other voting machine companies have also taken action.
And what is Fox News response to this lawsuit?
Well, it's predictable. I mean, it's it's saying it stands by its election coverage, saying that it was completely balanced and and reporting legitimate news stories and that it will defend what it says is, you know, unfair accusations. Having said all that, of course, they did take one of their presenters off air who had been accused of doing this when the first cases were filed. So that I think they're filling some of the pressure here. But it's interesting that these companies really do seem to be going after the network and we'll see if they go any wider in any broader in their accusations in the coming weeks.
Because, of course, you know, the former president himself was was involved in spreading some of these rumors.
Well, they've already filed lawsuits against Donald Trump's lawyers, haven't they?
Yeah, they've they filed a lawsuit against his campaign lawyer, Sydney Power, and also against his personal lawyer, Rudy Giuliani, of course, both of whom were involved in talking about the Dominion machines in particular, and their their role in places like Georgia, the Donahoo.
And next we go to Tanzania.
And to the burial service for the country's late president, John Paul Magufuli, who was laid to rest today in his hometown of Chatto along the shores of Lake Victoria. Thousands of mourners had the chance to pay their respects in the past week as his funeral cortege was taken to various points across the country. 61 year old John Magufuli, who led Tanzania since late 2005, is the first head of state of the country to die while in office. Aboubakar Famo is in Chatur for the BBC.
It has been a sorrowful occasion as Tanzanians have been keenly following the event. But also it was well attended, they can say, by senior government officials, including the president of Tanzania, Samia Zulu Hassan, and also former heads of states who are around. But also there were other guests from other organisations, the parastatals and all that, and also the general public that turned up in their hundreds at Magufuli Stadium here in Chatto. Basically as early as dawn, the gates were open at the stadium and people started pouring out at the event at the venue.
I will say. But by around 8:00 in the morning, the body of the late president fully was taken from his compound to the church where there were special prayers that were held at the church. He's a Catholic, so he was taken to a Catholic church. Then later the body was taken back to mobile fully stadium. That's where I mean, there are other prayers that were held by religious leaders and also some speeches that were given at the occasion at that particular time.
Also, the president of Tanzania addressed the mourners and they also recounted some of the beautiful memories that she Shehada with with the president, especially when she last time he came here in chuckle and this is what she said, Lirone Porcher to commemorate today.
I mean, Chatto for the third time, the first time I came during the 2015 campaign, the second time I came to pay my tribute to our brother who had lost his sister, and we were with him together with other leaders the whole day.
And I thought maybe when I come to Chatto again, I would meet my host to receive more.
But in contrary to that, we have come to Chatto to bury our father, brother, leader and teacher.
The words of Samir Salihu Hassan ending that report from Aboubakar Farmer.
Senegal has been convulsed by some of the worst unrest in more than a decade. According to Amnesty International, 12 people have died in anti-government protests, which saw thousands of young people take to the streets earlier this month. The West African nation is usually seen as a model of democracy, but the country's economy has suffered during the pandemic. Our correspondent Ben Hunte has sent this report from Dakar on why young people have had enough.
On the back streets of a coastal area of Dakar is the home of a young Taylor who was recently shot dead in the protests. His twin sister, Gony, is crying in the corner, too upset to talk to us. But his older brother, Abdullah Wade, wants to speak out.
My brother went to the protests to fight for the youth of our country. Young people here can't find work. Is lack of jobs. They have lost hope to these people he was fighting for.
And that's why he was there holding the negative side of the protests kicked off after the arrest of Opposition Leader Ousmane CENCOM. He was accused of rape, but some people are worried that the case is an attempt by President Macky Sall to silence the opposition. University students were among the protesters. Master's student Fatmata Top didn't join them, but she shares their concerns. She lost her job as a receptionist in the pandemic and thinks she'll have to move abroad to find work.
Once you get your degree, you were toiling to have a job when it comes to find a job. If they do not know you, you are not going to have that job. Wow, that's corruption. Senegalese people are so corrupt from head to the bar. Really? That's the reality.
We're in a suburb of Dakar and hip hop sent us. I'm seeing young people. I'm hearing beats in the background. I'm here with rapper Fu Mullard. Tell me a bit about where we are.
We are in the way, one of the biggest ever of Dakar.
Why we have poverty, where we have prostitution.
That's why we think about a project called Motluk, not a means of growing the future, growing the future with young people by the age of Hip-Hop.
And what are you doing? We give them pulled off their own emancipation. Graffy. T rhymes and poetry, we just try to connect to music and social problems to bring change to.
Mallard was a founding member of the decade old activist group Yong-Nam, meaning we've had enough. Nine years ago, they were key to the then opposition leader Macchi Sals victory. But now they say his presidency is part of the problem and Phil Mallard is worried about the country's future.
I'm very scared for young people because when political leaders lying to the people, most of them young people, will get radicalized, they will take rifles to make change.
22 year old musician Fatta, better known as Chekists, is a community organizer at the center here.
Young, they don't feel part of the system and they don't have anything to do, so they turn to crime.
This song, which she wrote herself in The Wall of Language, is about the loss of hope and being undervalued.
Last summer. It sums up the feelings of a generation. Ben Hunt in Dacca now, earlier after the budget, we promised you some news on French wine. Well, a group of French connoisseurs have detected a sprinkle of stardust, their latest testing, where they were the first people in the world to sample and review wine that spent a year in space as part of an experiment on the effect of lack of gravity. It wasn't any old plonk either, but a 21 year old prized Bordeaux, Petrus worth around five and a half thousand dollars a bottle.
Jane Hansen, contributing editor of Decanter magazine, was one of the innovators who took part in the taste test.
There were 12 of us in the room who were tasting. I was the only journalist very lucky to be there and we were given three glasses in front of us.
We didn't know what they were, but we were told that half of us in the room had two glasses that had been to space and one that had been on Earth and the other six had the other way round.
So to Earth in one space that we didn't know who had what.
And we had to look at them and identify through aromas and through taste and then through smell. Petru through the wine, which has a 100 percent mellow grape. So you're looking at something which is one single grape to see how that has survived. But also it's a wine which has got a lot of structure to it. It's a really a good quality wine, which should do well over 21 years. So from my experience of tasting it, what I could see was the one that remained on Earth was exactly like you would expect, which means that lovely, deep, rich colour, beautiful aromatics, but still quite young.
And then the other glass for me was just slightly more pink around the edges, a little bit more evolved. And what happens with this kind of wine when they get older is you get a lovely floral aromatics, truffle aromatics, they like a violet peony, all that kind of stuff. And that was more obvious to me in the wine that had been in space. But I mean, it really is part of a big ongoing experiment. And what's interesting is they sent not just wine, but they sent little vine plants up.
So budwood from a vine plant up into space. And this, again, is why NASAA were really very happy to allow this to happen. It's part of future of agriculture. What does this mean for climate change on Earth? And can we equip plants basically with a better way to react to climate change? Then they hope within two years to be doing a fermentation app on the International Space Station as well.
Sanjeev, after that, Jane Hansen, the American novelist and screenwriter Larry McMurtry, who won a Pulitzer Prize and an Oscar, has died at the age of 84 or more than five decades. He wrote more than 30 books and more than 30 screenplays, including Brokeback Mountain, for which he won an Academy Award in 2006.
The nominees for best screenplay, based on material previously produced or published, are. Larry McMurtry and Diana Ossana for Brokeback Mountain, based on the short story by anything, our arts correspondent Vincent Doud tell me more about his life and work.
He was a writer of human character and human weakness, especially always in very draw, well drawn places. That was often Texas where he was from. He was actually born in Archer City population, well under 2000. And in many novels, that hometown is they're often renamed Tahlia. In some cases. He did write historically, for instance, Lonesome Dove, for which, as you say, he won the Pulitzer Prize that was a Western made into a hit TV series.
Terms of Endearment was actually set in big city Houston. So he did have a range. He didn't actually write the screenplay for that hit film. But in 1971, he co-wrote with Peter Bogdanovich the script from his own novel of, I think, a superb film starring Jeff Bridges, Cloris Leachman and Cybill Shepherd, The Last Picture Show.
You wouldn't believe how this country's changed our and layaways drag Yadier probably. I'm not sentimental as the next fellow when it comes to old, but Miami is a said, isn't it?
Unless you're married. You know, I wouldn't do that. Coming out. Coming out. You've got to be man like a year or two. I'll get shot.
Oh. As it happens that I just happened to watch that film again about three weeks ago, only on DVD, as one does at the moment, I was in tears at the end. It's still a fantastically evocative film.
And he won the Oscar, didn't he, for Brokeback Mountain? Yes, he did. So he had that separate career as a as a screenwriter. He was a professional writer. He never really had another job. He described himself as a minor regional writer. I never was sure whether that was a joke or not. He wasn't a very effusive man. If you look at interviews with him, he occupied a sort of middle territory between genre fiction and literary fiction.
He wrote very simply and very directly. I suppose that may have been what endeared him to Hollywood. The stories were always there. In McMurtry books, you'll find comedy and you will always find profound sadness and you will find a lot of love gone wrong. I think that's why in those movies they used Hank Williams songs because that was kind of in the same world of regret. I know this may sound terribly banal to say as an arts correspondent, but he wrote about people with all our flaws.
He also had slightly, strangely, a second career for the last half of his life. He loved being a bookseller. Some people who write books don't physically like books, but he loved it. It all started in Washington, DC 50 years ago, but it's now still based in Archer City, where he came from a very big, very obviously well-run bookstore called Booked Up, where, of course, they will be in deep mourning today. I have to say, it looks like very attractive stock online.
And you go to buy some.
Well, I was going to say what they all go there. Well, that's the plan.
Vincent Dowd on Larry McMurtry, who's died at the age of 84.
And that's it from us for now.
But there'll be an updated version of the Global News podcast later. If you want to comment on this podcast, all the topics covered in it, send us an email. The address is Global podcast at BBC Dot Dot UK. This edition was fixed by Jack Griesbach. The producer was Shavon Lihe, the editor. As always, Karen Martin. I'm Valerie Sandison. Until next time, but I. I'm dusa the host of Deeply Human, where we traipse into the uncharted darkness of our skulls to find out why we do the things we do.
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