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Due to the graphic nature of this episode, listener discretion is advised this episode contains discussions of murder, sexual assault and child abuse that some listeners may find disturbing. Extreme caution is advised for listeners under 13 or 21 year old Erica Ingram sat frozen in front of the television screen. She could hardly breathe, but her heart pounded in her chest. Everything she was hearing Geraldo Rivera say felt familiar.


The special, called Devil Worship, exposing Satan's underground detail, the wave of Satanism and ritual abuse currently plaguing America. Dozens of former devil worshippers spoke out about their practices like drinking blood and sacrificing animals. Horrified police officers laid out Satanists recruiting tactics, explaining how the dark religion managed to ensnare so many youths. Traumatized parents recounted how they uncovered their own children's abuse, warning other parents not to ignore the signs.


The more Aruca watched, the more she was convinced this had all happened to her, too. She'd been raped dozens, if not hundreds of times by men in robes chanting in tongues. And one of the men was her own father.


It had to be true. This was what the woman from church warned her about. She'd told Erica that her father had been tricked by the devil. Satan had infiltrated her father's soul and convinced him to do unspeakable things.


Then the devil erased his memory so he didn't even know the sins he'd committed. But Erica knew. She remembered. The more she remembered, the more horrified she was.


She'd been subjected to beatings, rapes and mutilations.


She remembered her father forcing her to have an abortion in the backyard.


Then he ate pieces of the flesh.


Erika's father might not remember what he did, but he was certainly going to be punished for it.


Hi, I'm Greg Polson, welcome to the second episode of a five part special, A Satanic Panic, part of a crossover event between serial killers and cults.


Over the next four weeks, we're taking a deep dive into what sparked this modern day mass panic in America. You can find the final three episodes of Satanic Panic exclusively on cults.


New episodes air every Tuesday. I'm here with my co-host, Vanessa Richardson. Hi, everyone. You can find episodes of serial killers, cults and all other Spotify originals from podcast for free on Spotify or wherever you listen to podcasts with several decades worth of distance.


It's easy to pass judgment on those who were swept up in the madness of the satanic panic. But we're examining exactly how it took hold from 1960s popular culture and the rise of evangelical Christianity to serial killers and murderous cults. We're delving into the facts that fed the falsehoods.


Today, we're taking a closer look at three serial killers whose terrifying crimes helped feed the fear of a growing satanic influence in the United States.


Next time we're diving into the horrific crimes of satanic cults whose bloody murders seem conjured right from the nightmares of parents across North America. We've got all that and more coming up.


Stay with us. By the latter half of the 20th century, Christianity was losing its influence on the United States music, books, films, all were corrupted by the taint of the occult. In the eyes of believers, church and state were well and truly severed. Horrified Christians watched on as the once godly nation embraced a growing wave of occult practices. One only had to turn on the evening news, open a paper or go to the movies to be met with an onslaught of evil worshippers, psychic's witches and pagans with the smell of brimstone in the air.


It was only a matter of time before the Prince of Darkness invaded the homes of everyday suburbanites. Eventually, the fears of encroaching biblical evil led to now infamous accusations of satanic ritual abuse. Children spoke about sexual abuse suffered at the hands of their parents and caregivers. Adults recovered memories of the same horrors from their own childhood rape, animal and human sacrifice, blood rituals all in the name of Satan.


Or at least that's what righteous accusers would have you believe. In reality, none of it happened, but the truth was lost in the clamor for justice. These stomach churning accusations of child sacrifice sent the country into a hysterical death spiral, the likes of which it hadn't seen since the famed Salem witch hunts of the 90s.


But before we get there, we want to take a closer look at what factors contributed to this divorce from reality. Eventually, thousands would be accused of sacrificing children in service of some demonic pact with the devil. And the American public swallowed that idea so readily you would think they'd seen that kind of thing before.


And to be fair, in the 1970s and 80s, the U.S. was certainly exposed to some of history's more Satan centric criminals. Several serial killers whose crimes captivated the nation surely contributed to the rising fear of the occult. For these killers, demonic possession and ritual sacrifice were part and parcel of their sickening crimes. But none of them would have ever guessed at the wider implications their crimes would have.


Indeed, it's unlikely any killers with a satanic mythos around them ever intended to spread the word of the dark Lord. They only wanted to spread chaotic fear. And that's exactly the state New York City was in during the spring of 1977. There was a serial shooter on the loose in New York City. He seemed to strike at random, targeting people sitting in parked cars. Police were completely at a loss for motive until the 44 caliber killer claimed his fourth and fifth victims on April 17th.


This time, he left behind a note and it was a development that would change everything.


The letter was addressed to Joe Borrelli, one of the lead investigators on the 44 caliber task force. The confusing, chilling note outlined the motives behind the murders, and no one could have predicted the reasoning. The killer claimed that he was acting on the orders of his father and referenced bodies drained of blood blood. His father used to stay young, whatever that meant. It clearly smacked of ritual behavior, something everyone was anxious about at the time.


Over the next few weeks, Jimmy Breslin of the New York Daily News teased out the contents of the letter, drawing New Yorkers deeper into the mystery, he tantalized readers with glimpses into the madness of the Slayer. And at the end of May, his continued coverage of the case was rewarded.


The killer sent another chilling letter addressed directly to Breslin. It described his thirst to kill and promised that he wasn't done again. He blamed the murders on a desire to please his father and described himself like a spirit roaming the night. And he signed it. Son of Sam.


Almost immediately, fear of the killer increased. If at first it seemed that the 44 caliber slayer was just your average crazed killer with a gun. This chilling new moniker and fresh insight into his twisted mind proved the Son of Sam was a new kind of monster altogether. Son of Sam was the first to admit he was a monster in the rambling missive, the killer referred to himself as an outsider who lived life on a different wavelength than others. He was Beelzebub, he wrote, and he lived for the hunt.


For the next few months, New York was captivated by the spectral son of Sam. He attacked twice more, killing one person and injuring three others. All the while, he sent letters to police and journalists. He taunted the officers who hunted him, but also seemed to beg for everything to end. He insisted that if they wanted to stop him, police would have to kill him.


But in the end, it didn't come to that. After what was touted as the single largest manhunt in New York history, a tip led investigators right to the Son of Sam store. When they pulled back the curtain, they found 24 year old postal worker David Berkowitz. He freely admitted to the crimes and went quietly. During police interviews, he elaborated on the disturbing character of Sam, who gave him his orders. It turned out that Sam wasn't Berkowitz's biological father, but a 6000 year old demon who possessed his neighbor's black Labrador through the dog, the demon Sam ordered Berkowitz to kill.


And what choice did he have but to obey? Simply following those orders, Berkowitz killed six people and injured another seven. Despite Berkowitz's claims that the shootings were in service of a demon, there wasn't anything traditionally ritualistic about them. Typically, when we think about someone killing in the name of Satan, it calls to mind images of pentagrams and drinking blood. But in this case, the shootings were rather banal. So although he terrorized New York for a year, it seems like David Berkowitz, the 44 caliber killer, should have faded into obscurity.


So why didn't he?


In this case, it's all about the story telling news outlets gleefully ran headlines like Sam told me to do it. Sam is the devil. The accompanying articles then dove into the madness that spurred Berkowitz on. Before long, all anyone remembered about the Son of Sam killings were the flashiest details, the demonic dog, the chilling letters and the iconic name. As the years passed, Berkowitz languished in prison, sentenced to six consecutive life terms behind bars. Few noticed when he announced that his early story of the possessed dog was a fabrication.


He admitted that he killed out of a deep seated loathing for women not because of demonic possession.


However, that wasn't the final word in the Son of Sam case. For years, rumors persisted that Berkowitz didn't act alone. Some people believed he was part of a satanic cult called the 22 Disciples of Hell.


The idea was first popularized by investigative reporter Maury Terry and remains a point of contention for decades. Whether there was any truth behind the story was of little consequence. The public was so convinced that the 22 disciples of hell were related to the 44 caliber shootings that 20 years after the summer of Sam, the Yonkers Police Department officially reopened the case.


The case was quietly closed some time later, with no additional charges ever laid in relation to the attacks. But for a while, it seems, police found the idea of satanic involvement at least somewhat credible.


That makes sense when considering how the world changed in the two decades following Berkowitz's murder spree. Serial killers seem to surge in the 1980s, with some 200 operating at one time. The seeming explosion in serial killers only fed concern over violent satanic crime. So even though the Son of Sam murders had no occult elements, they were thrown onto the growing pile of satanic cases. But it's a tenuous tether when considering the killers who came after David Berkowitz, the men who readily claim to serve Satan and killed in his name.


Coming up, the satanic murders that rocked California listeners.


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But once our hopeful single chooses their match, the cameras are turned on and it's either butterflies or good goodbye. Blind Dating airs weekly with new episodes. Every Wednesday, you can find and follow Blind Dating, Free on Spotify or wherever you get your podcasts. Now back to the story between 1976 and 1977, David Berkowitz terrorized New York City in what is often referred to as the Summer of Sam, claiming to receive orders from a 6000 year old demon.


He murdered six people. Even more chilling, he gleefully sent letters about his crimes to police and the media.


It's mostly these letters that made the Son of Sam murders legendary. In his rambling missives, he made fantastical claims that a demon possessed dog ordered him to kill. And no matter the veracity behind Berkowitz's letters, they contributed to the rising fear of satanic forces at work in the United States. But less than a decade later, a new killer emerged to haunt the nightmares of God fearing Americans. And unlike Berkowitz, this guy wasn't just a minion of a demon.


He was the devil incarnate.


That much was clear on the morning of June 28th, 1984, when 79 year old Jenny Vinko was found dead in her Los Angeles apartment. Jenny's home was in disarray when her son Jack found her body. Jenny's killer had raped her and then cut her throat so deeply that she was almost beheaded. Initially, the investigation into Jenny's murder went cold, but the killer struck again, beginning his terrifying rampage in February of 1985 on the 21st of February.


Fifty eight year old Christina Caldwell and her 70 year old sister Mary were found dead in their San Francisco home. The women died of dozens of stab wounds which sprayed every surface of the room with blood. One of the sisters was found stabbed in the throat as if the killer was silencing her cry for help.


All over the home, blood was smeared with shoe prints and handprints, which police felt sure would lead to an arrest. But after careful investigation, they realized the prints all came from concerned neighbors who found the bodies. So were the contaminated crime scene and no obvious motive for the brutal murders. The case went cold.


Less than a month later, on March 17th, the killer struck again back in Los Angeles. Once more, he shot roommates Dale Okazaki and Maria Hernandez. Maria, 22, survived and called for help. Dale, 34, died in the condo she just purchased.


Less than an hour later, the killer stopped a car, pulling 30 year old Silin. You from the driver's seat. He shot Silin several times and fled, leaving her there to die.


As investigators tried to put together the pieces of this seemingly random puzzle, the killer moved on to his next target. On March 27th, he broke into the home of Vincent and Maxine Zahraa. 64 year old Vincent owned a pizza parlor, and Maxine was a successful lawyer. Their bodies were discovered a couple of days later, both shot through the head.


Leaving Vincent to die on a couch. The killer executed Maxin, then mutilated her body, she was covered with stab wounds, including a curious T shaped carving under her breast. Horrifically, her eyes were gouged out as well. It was a stomach churning detail that elevated the double murder from newsworthy to infamous investigators and family members puzzled over a motive for the attack, wondering if perhaps it was a mob hit and all the while the killer went undiscovered. Then, in May, the killer crawled in through an open window in the Monterey Park home of William and Lilly boy he shot sixty five year old William in the head, then turned to assault Lelliott.


But before he died, William managed to dial 911 one, alerting police to the break in with authorities on the way the attacker fled, leaving Lilian alive.


It's difficult to work out when, but investigators eventually linked the long string of Los Angeles attacks to the same perpetrator, given that he took advantage of unlocked doors in the San Fernando Valley. The press dubbed the assailant the walk in killer and the Valley intruder. The intruder surviving victims described a Latino man with long, curly hair reminiscent of a rock star. He had crooked, rotting teeth and startling bulging eyes. It was a terrifying picture of a man police weren't even close to apprehending.


The killers bloody spree through the city continued through the summer of 1985, prompting Southern California locals to lock their doors, bar their windows, invest in guns and sleep with the lights on. The attacks were brutal, random and terrifying. The killer emerged from the shadows, finished off his victims and disappeared into the darkness. Just like Son of Sam. A decade earlier, he took on the terrifying mythos of the boogeyman. So when the Los Angeles Herald Examiner printed an editorial renaming the killer the Night Stalker, it caught on fast.


By August of that year, the Night Stalker had claimed the lives of 14 people, each attack was different, but most followed a similar pattern. Many men in the homes were quickly dispatched, followed by the woman whose body, the Night Stalker, then mutilated in various ways on one of his victims. The Night Stalker left a pentagram drawn in lipstick. He also dubbed one on the same woman's bedroom wall, though not technically in a cult symbol, the pentagram has long stood as a sign of devil worship or witchcraft.


After months of the random, terrifying murders, people were desperate for answers.


Any kind of insight into why this was happening, the lipstick pentagram gave them their answer. Surely it was the work of the devil by itself.


The pentagram might have been a quirk random graffiti from the sadistic, cocky murderer. But in August of 1985, the Night Stalker broke into the apartment of 29 year old Bill Karnes. He shot Bill three times in the head, then attacked Bill's girlfriend, 29 year old Inez Erickson, while raping the woman.


The Night Stalker, with his gap-toothed smile and mass of dark curls, ordered Inês to swear her love for Satan. It was confirmation of everyone's building suspicion. Demonic forces at play in sunny California. Afterwards, the killer ransacked the apartment, then fled with a handful of cash. Inês managed to take note of the car the man escaped in and gave a description to police with help from another witness.


Police tracked down the car and managed to pull a single, usable fingerprint. After hours, carefully combing through the database, investigators finally had a name for their night stalker, Richard Ramirez.


Police released Ramirez's name and photograph to the media, hoping to increase the odds he'd be recognized and turned in. It worked. Thousands of Angelenos were deputized in the hunt on the lookout for the God face and distinctive teeth. Within days, 25 year old Ramirez was in police custody, lifting the state of fear that had settled over the city.


Though he terrorized millions for months, the legend of the Night Stalker was only just beginning. In court, Ramirez drew a pentagram on his palm, holding it up for all to see and screamed Hail Satan as he was escorted out of the courtroom. And those were the headlines people most remembered in the coming years. The confessed Satan worshiper who disrupted court with his Antichrist outbursts like Son of Sam before him, the Night Stalker paralyzed an entire city. And like David Berkowitz, Richard Ramirez's reputation boiled down to the spookiest, most memorable parts of him.


And perhaps there's a reason for that. Crime reporter James Hoare compares tales of serial killers to the campfire stories.


We're told as children hearing them feels like a fairy tale for grown ups, he says.


There's something in our psyche where we have this need to tell stories about being pursued by monsters. So when we learn horrific details of a serial killer's rampage, it brings a perverse thrill.


Serial killers already offer society a fascinating subject for study and discussion. We want to know what drives them, their motives and methods.


But criminals like Ramirez and Berkowitz capture the imagination on another level, with otherworldly motivations and odd demeanors.


They invite speculation into what's going on behind their frightening eyes. So it's easy to point to their satanic connections, however tenuous, and dust off our hands. We've solved the case that explains things.


Having an explanation for a traumatic event, even one that didn't affect you personally, makes it easier to distance yourself from the moment. A 2003 study on how memory helps form identity suggests that distancing oneself from undesirable behavior helps put it firmly. In the past, social psychologists and Wilson and Michael Ross conducted their research to focus on the autobiographical elements of memory. But psychologist IRA Hyman believes their theories can also be applied to processing collective trauma.


In other words, designating the crimes of Richard Ramirez as the acts of an avowed Satanist who was clearly motivated to serve the devil through murder makes the story easier to digest. It's the adult version of an evil stepmother or a fairy godmother, and now that we've figured it out, we as a society can move on.


But although Richard Ramirez did express an obsessive admiration for Satan, it's unlikely that it was the driving factor in his crimes. Ramirez's murderous rampage was more likely brought on by his traumatic childhood, in particular his relationship with his older cousin, Miguel.


When Ramirez was 12, Miguel returned from active duty in the Vietnam War and took his young cousin under his wing. They smoked weed together, and as they grew closer, Miguel shared a dark secret with Ramirez.


He pulled out photographs of women in Vietnam.


He raped, tortured and killed. Then, when Ramirez was 13, Miguel shot his wife in the face, killing her. His young cousin witnessed the murder.


This early exposure to horrific violence at the hands of a role model might have indelibly linked violence with manhood, according to forensic psychologist Catherine Ramsland, who was familiar with the murder spree. This troubling relationship with his cousin could have influenced the developing fantasies of young Ramirez.


It seems likely that his traumatic childhood influenced Ramirez's murderous rampage. It's less likely that his fleeting references to Satanism were the root cause of his bloody spree. His lifelong drug use also stands as a likely contributing factor.


Indeed, both childhood trauma and substance abuse have shown links to acts of violence later in life. The connection from devil worship to serial murder is less robust.


And yet his story had an indelible mark on our society. Despite the fact that his crimes had no concrete grounding in satanic ritual abuse, they undoubtedly contributed to the rising fear of Satanism in the U.S.. By the time Ramirez went to trial in July of 1988, the satanic panic was just hitting its stride. Just a few months later, journalist and TV host Geraldo Rivera aired a two hour pseudo documentary called Devil. Worship exposing Satan's underground. Millions tuned in to watch the program, eager to hear how satanic forces were taking over the American way of life in prime time, Rivera gleefully urged parents to usher children from the room.


The gruesome crimes and satanic deeds about to be discussed were not for innocent ears.


The program featured a panel of so-called experts on Satanism and ritual abuse. Among them was musician Ozzy Osbourne, who appeared in an effort to convince the audience that his music had no genuine satanic sentiments. Offering a markedly different perspective was a teenage Satanist and death row inmate who insisted his crimes were solely motivated by a love for and worship of Satan.


Unlike Ramirez, this killer publicly turned away from his satanic past. He foisted the blame on to anyone who peddled a topsy turvy world view where good was evil and evil was fun. In a moment, how an innocent boy was corrupted by Satan and Dungeons and Dragons. Now back to the story. In the 1980s, Satan's influence was spreading across the United States with alarming speed, if you were paying attention, you were likely afraid, especially if you were a parent.


Once the devil got its claws into someone, they were on an immovable path to evil. And by the time a parent realized their child was in Satan's clutches, it was too late. Then there was no telling what could happen.


As a young boy, Sean Sellars was somewhat interested in the occult and reportedly discovered the role playing game of Dungeons and Dragons when he was 12, according to an article from People magazine.


The game fueled his darkening fantasies, and it was around then that the once bright, engaging boy slid into the frightening role of moody, sullen teen. But though he seemed to withdraw from his family, Sean wasn't completely alone. He made friends with a boy named Richard Howard, who also enjoyed Dungeons and Dragons.


When Shawn's parents moved him away from Oklahoma in 1983, he drifted even further away from the boy he'd once been and after his girlfriend from church camp dumped him. It was the final nail in the coffin. Mad at God, he craved power, the power of the supernatural.


And so perhaps taking his cue from what he'd seen in the news, Sean devoted himself to Satanism. He drank alcohol and studied demonology in his spare time. On one occasion, he and a friend performed a satanic baptism for a third boy.


The new Satanist was made to strip by candlelight. Then the other boys used a sword to cut him so they could drink his blood. What they didn't drink. They used to write a dedication to Satan. It was troubling behavior, to be sure, but resembled the other rebellious teenagers dabbling in Satanism around the country at the time. If his parents were worried, they might have taken comfort in believing it was just a phase.


But when Sean and his parents returned to Oklahoma City in 1984, his fascination with Satanism only intensified. Reunited with his old friend Richard Howard, Sean introduced him to his new religion and gathered other like minded teens around him.


It was around this time that publicity around the McMartin preschool ritual abuse accusations grew to a national level, catapulting Satanism into greater prominence. With this new group of friends, Sean started using an abandoned farmhouse as a makeshift place of worship. Sean later recalled, We were always cutting each other and drinking the blood. I was like a vampire, like all good vampires.


Sean kept busy at night, but because he wasn't actually undead, he took amphetamines to fuel his nocturnal lifestyle, keeping himself awake while he studied Satanism at night to even things out, he self medicated with alcohol and marijuana. Looking back, Sean reported that he started blacking out for periods of time and revealed that during these periods his body was taken over by a demonic alter ego named Esmoreit.


Whether or not he was possessed by it on the night of September 8th, 1985, it would prove to be a turning point in Sean's life. That evening, Richard stole his grandfather's 357 Magnum and gave it to Sean. Then the two teens drove to a convenience store looking to settle a score. A clerk once refused to sell them beer, and it was an insult the boys couldn't abide.


Roger Bauer was working alone that night, so there was no one to help him. When the two teenage Satanists walked into the store minutes after they entered, Sean aimed the gun and squeeze the trigger.


With his first murder under his belt, Sean fled the scene, leaving few clues to tie him to the crime. And for months, his life was unremarkable, though his relationship with his parents remained increasingly fractious. He had other things to distract him. He was in love.


While working at a teenage nightclub, Sean met and fell in love with a 15 year old girl named Angel. Actually, he only fell in love with Angel after the demon Azur. It developed a sexual desire for her. 16 year old Sean saw beyond her sex appeal and claimed to love Angel for who she was.


They were like a biblical Romeo and Juliet, the Angel and the Satanist. But like all good star crossed lovers, they were kept apart. Sean's parents didn't approve of the relationship and forbade Sean to see Angel. He tried running away, but his parents quickly caught up to him and brought him back home. He tried to move in with his biological father, but the plans fell through. He was stuck.


By 1986, Sean was fed up. It felt like the only good thing in his life was Satanism. In February of that year, he wrote that it made him a better person and allowed him to, quote, kill without remorse and.


On March 5th, he was getting ready to test that theory once more, he arrived home from work that night, changed into black underwear and a cape, and performed a blood ritual. When he was done, he found his stepfather's gun, crept to his parents room and took aim while they slept. He shot his mother and stepfather in the head.


The next morning, Sean feigned shock when he discovered the bodies, but few were fooled by his act, and the 16 year old was promptly charged with the double murder to those closest to him. The revelation of Sean's murderous nature came as little surprise.


But to the outside world, his transformation from once friendly and outgoing young kid to Satan worshipping parent annihilator was a terrifying warning of the dangers of the occult.


Journalists latched on to Shawn's love of Dungeons and Dragons and wrote lengthy descriptions of his black wardrobe, dark nail polish and penchant for blood rituals.


The story fed into every parent's worst nightmare.


Servant of Satan or not, Sean could see he was backed into a corner. He eventually confessed to the murder of Roger Bauer and was handed the death penalty for his crimes as he languished on death row. He came to terms with his punishment, converted to Christianity and spent his time preaching against Satanism from behind bars.


Sean had a huge influence on the growing satanic panic of the late 1980s. Famously, he appeared on Geraldo Rivera Show, speaking from his prison cell about the evils of Satanism. He blamed his crimes on his fascination with Satanism and a literal interpretation of Anton Levey's satanic Bible. Like much of the sensationalist reporting surrounding the Satanic panic, Sean offered a tantalizing glimpse into an alien world that shocked and horrified by sharing his tale, Sean provided valuable insight for worried parents and boosted ratings for Geraldo Rivera.


Sean's story was different from that of David Berkowitz and Richard Ramirez. The Son of Sam and Night Stalker were painted as crazed men with an unhealthy or passing association with the devil. While they were influenced by a cult symbolism and jargon, they didn't have the same involvement in the movement that Sean did to those who heard his story. Sean Sellers was a teen with limitless potential but who was ruined by the devil's own hand. His was a cautionary tale, something parents look to as a terrifying reminder of just how close their own kids were to coming under Satan's spell.


At the time of the murders they each committed, there's no way these three killers could have guessed how much influence they would have on America at large. The son of Sam and Night Stalker murders caused widespread panic on opposite coasts, and Sean Sellers exemplified the dangers of an impressionable young mind corrupted.


But despite the genuine disquiet caused by these depraved crimes, they were the acts of singular killers, lone disturbed men who wanted to inflict pain upon the world.


But they weren't the only men whose crimes through outsized shadows.


What about those deranged killers who assembled like minded followers to do their bloody bidding? Men who craved power and were certain that killing in the name of Satan was the only way to get it? Criminal groups who relished the feeling of blood on their hands.


These killer cults drew strength from murder because they believed they worked for a higher power. Who demanded sacrifice? They didn't fear any consequences because the devil would protect them for doing his bidding. And so whatever Satan asked for, they delivered no matter what.


Thanks again for tuning in to our satanic panic special. You can find the final three episodes exclusively on cults. A new episode airs every Tuesday. Next week, we're diving into the murderous cults whose infamous slayings took devil worship to a whole new level.


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Serial killers and cults were created by Max Cutler and our podcast studios originals.


Executive producers include Max and Ron Cutler, Sound Design by Russell Nash with production assistance by Ron Shapiro, Carly Madden and Joshua Kern. This episode was written by Joel Kaplan, the writing assistants by Abigail Canet and stars Greg Polson and Vanessa Richardson.


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