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Welcome to Stuff You Missed in History Class A production of I Heart Radio. Hello and welcome to the podcast, I'm Holly Fry, and I'm Tracy Wilson. So Croesus is a name that is now most commonly referenced.


When someone wants to shorthand that a person is ridiculously wealthy, that is the thing, that it happens sometimes in English language. But other languages use it all the time and I think possibly a little bit more than English speakers.


And he is one of those historical figures who is both real and has taken on a mythical status, also mythical. Aesop was a member of his court and there's all kinds of mythical swirling around him. But the story of the ridiculously wealthy Croesus, which was likely fictionalized in a number of ways and we'll talk about that, also becomes this sort of cautionary tale about pride and hubris and what really has value in life.


So Croesus was born into the royal family of Lydia. Lydia was a kingdom that occupied the western section of Anatolia. Roughly speaking, in modern shorthand, we're talking about the left half of the Asia Minor Peninsula. So it's part of modern day Turkey to the west that the Greeks and to the east or the lands of Persia, the Liddiard that Croesus was born into was very prosperous. When Phrygia, which had been the dominant power on the peninsula since around twelve hundred BCE, was attacked by Sumerians and fell from power circa 700 BCE.


Lydia became the most powerful kingdom in the region, kind of filled that power vacuum. And at that point it was ruled by King Gyges from the newly established Libyan capital of Sardis. This also established the Mermaid Dynasty. After Gyges came artists in the mid seventh century B.C., followed by societies and then ally ities. Ally ATI's was crisis's father, and it's under a Leotis that Lydia is said to have really hit its apex in terms of power and prosperity.


The exact dates for the names of those kings are pretty fuzzy. The main source that's used for them is from Herodotus. But if you do the math based on the accounts of the years that he uses, that math does not quite add up. Also, just in general, Herodotus sometimes would like to say, this is how I heard it. Yes, 100 percent. It's one of those things where he is listed as a great historian.


But as we'll discuss later, there's definitely some some flexibility with the records, what serves his purpose.


But what is less fuzzy is the fact that during the years from 700 BCE to Kris's becoming king, circa 560 BCE, Linnear had established itself as a very prosperous commercial culture. It is one of the earliest cultures known to have instituted the concept of retail shops like permanent stores, and the Libyans were minting coinage way ahead of the rest of the western world. There is evidence of Chinese coinage that predates the Libyans, although the coins that were minted specifically under Krisis more closely resemble what we would think of today as coinage.


When Ali Arties died in five sixty BCE, Croesus became King and he was 35 at the time. And Chris was like a lot of people in his day, very into using things like dreams and oracles to predict the future. He had two sons. One of them is described again by Herodotus as having a very minor disability and this is treated just horribly within the text. Croesus says, quote, Since he is ruined, he doesn't exist for me.


Yeah, there's a whole side story about his son that I may be going to save for our casual Friday chat. It's a weird thing, but the other son that he had, Addas, was much beloved and was the king's pride. And when Krisis had a dream that showed ATIS being killed by an iron spear crisis, then did everything in his power to shelter his son, he arranged for a speedy marriage to give him a home life, and he stopped tasking him with going out into battle.


And he basically tried to keep him safe and at home all the time. But ultimately, Creases did allow ATIS to go on a hunt. And this was at his son's request.


And after much debate, because that US was sort of feeling like, hey, I don't have anything to be proud of in our culture at this point because you won't let me go to war and I can't even go outside. This stinks. So he allowed him to go on this hunt. And of course, another hunter spear missed the wild boar that they were hunting and killed. Addas and Croesus reportedly mourned this son for two full years.


Lydia is usually cited as the first kingdom to mint metal coinage under Croesus. The first silver and gold coins for Lydia were made. And this is kind of reminding us a little bit of the many episodes where we have talked about the gold standard being challenged by the silver standard in the United States and how much. Strife came out of all that, those precious metals were part of a tender going all the way back to the 6th century B.C..


Yeah, and the coin type known as appreciated, featuring a face off between a lion and a bull, was developed during this time. And the representation of the lion actually served as a means to indicate the purity and the value of the coin. So a smaller piece of the lion's body would be stamped on a coin to indicate that that coin was a smaller denomination than one with a larger, more complete image of a lion.


And the Libyans really made great strides under crisis in the purification of gold, enabling them to ensure accuracy in these different coins. This is basically the beginning of the gold standard and the wealth was incredible. Another name that you've almost certainly heard in connection with ridiculous levels of riches as King Midas and crisis's very great wealth is said to have come from Midas. In a way, the mermaid dynasty allegedly got its extraordinary riches, in part by collecting it from the river populace, where Midas is said to have washed his hands.


There were also some taxes plundering other kingdoms, including enslaving people from those kingdoms.


Yeah, they actually gained their riches in a number of ways. But that Midas story is one that persists. And what defines much of what we know of the rule of crisis is war. And it said that conflict was ultimately what brought creases out of his morning state over his son once he was refocused on military leadership crisis, was eager to expand his power, and he could be ruthless in this quest. Herodotus wrote this of him, quote, This crisis was the first foreigner whom we know who subjugated some Greeks and took tribute from them and won the friendship of others, the former being the unions, the aliens and the Dorians of Asia, and the latter the last of the Mohicans.


Before the reign of Krisis, all Greeks were free for the Samarian host, which invaded Ionia before his time, did not subjugate the cities, but raided and robbed them. Yeah, so keep in mind, as we talk about crisis and he's an interesting figure, but he was very big on enslavement as something new that was not a tradition. That was something he instituted in his war making. So we mentioned a moment ago that crisis believed in Oracles, but he really wanted to run a test to ensure that the oracle that he would patronize was going to be the best one.


So Herodotus wrote that has sent men out to various shrines. But after they left the palace at Sardis, they had to bide their time for one hundred days. So they didn't know what Croesus was doing before going to these shrines. And then on the 100th day, each Oracle was supposed to be asked to divine what Croesus was doing at that very moment. And then all of these messengers would bring back the divinations and it would be obvious which Oracle or Oracles were the real deal.


The men who had visited the Oracle of Delphi at the Temple of Apollo came back with the following verse, quote, I know the number of the grains of sand and the extent of the sea and understand the mute and hear the voiceless. The smell has come to my senses of a strong shelled tortoise boiling in a cauldron together with a lamb's flesh under which is bronze and over which is bronze. We don't know what any of the others divined because this one was apparently spot on.


Creases said that the Oracle of Empress had also given a quote, true answer. But we don't know the wording of what that answer specifically was. But in an effort to concoct a strange enough event that it would be impossible to guess what he had been doing, Croesus had cut up a tortoise and the lamb and boiled them together in a covered bronze cauldron.


So let's move along from that less than pleasant image and take a quick break and have a word from some of the sponsors that keep stuff you missed in history class going. Remember the good old days when we were just normal college students and then 20/20 hit? So that's where the secret syllabus comes in. Hi, I'm Hannah Ashton. And I'm Katie Tracy. We're here to fill in everything they missed in our college curriculum, just like you were confronting the unknown.


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So Christmas was devoted to the Oracle of Delphi after it had successfully passed this test.


He sacrificed literally thousands of animals and burned almost every valuable thing he could lay hands on. He also commanded the citizens of Libya to do the same, and he sent so much gold to the temple.


There is a line in the translation that I read that stated quote. Moreover, he dedicated his own wife's necklaces and girdles. Which I just found funny as things to sacrifice to Apollo, so the goal of all of these offerings was to ensure that Krisis got good advice from the Oracle regarding his military plans. And the people he tasked with bringing his many gifts to the temple were instructed to get this advice. Two points came back. One was that if Croesus were to attack the Persians crossing a river to do so, he would destroy a great empire and two, that he should make friends with the most powerful Greeks.


So at this point in time, the power of the Persians, led by Cyrus the second, also known as Cyrus the Great, was expanding. We actually talked at some length about Cyrus the second in our episode on the attempted empire in 2016. Croesus, of course, wanted to curtail the expansion of the Persian Empire, and he started a campaign of his own to make sure that Cyrus, the second forces, did not get close to Libya. So Croesus asked the Oracle to once again tell him the future.


They sent messengers to Delphi to ask if his reign would be a long one. And the reply was, quote, When the Métis have a mule as King just then tender footed Lydian by the stone sr1 Hermes flee and do not stay and do not be ashamed to be a coward. Croesus took this pretty literally and he thought, well, a mule is never going to be a king. So this must be telling me that my rule is going to be very, very long and I have a lot of a lot of power ahead of me.


So bolstered and confident, he continued his military campaigning.


Over the course of his rule, Krisis had attacked Mphasis then Ionian cities than the cities of Aleah. According to Herodotus, all of these attacks were based on some sort of reason and in his words, quote, He found graver charges where he could, but sometimes alleged very petty grounds of offense.


Yeah, the justified invasions were pretty lightly justified in some cases. So next crisis set his sights on the islands of Greece as a target. And he knew that he was going to need to assemble a Navy fleet to conquer them. So he started up a shipbuilding project. But while this was all underway, he was approached by a man from the Lesbos capital of Midlane, whose name was either Prerna or Politicus, depending on the source that you read. And this man told Croesus that the islanders were actually amassing their own ground forces to attack Croesus at Sirtis.


Krisis replied essentially that he wished they would do that because his troops would destroy the islanders who had no experience in ground battle warfare. In response to this, the emissary from Mytilene pointed out that in starting a Navy from scratch, Krisis would be similarly disadvantaged if he tried to take on the Islander forces. So this put an end to crisis's Navy project, and he opted instead to form an alliance with the Ionian Islanders.


This story, Carex we forget. Oh yeah, come at me on land. And they're like, that's what we say about you coming at us unseeded. Dude, you are not going to manage this. During his time as King of Lydia, Croesus eventually became the ruler of most of the nations and peoples on the peninsula west of the hapless river.


That was the name of what is now known as the Cécilia Moch River Persians that conquered the media empire in 550 BCE. And this was a sobering event for Krisis. It became immediately apparent that his own power could also be challenged by the Persian forces. This led him to try to fortify his own strength through an alliance. And this goes back to that advice that he got from the Oracle of Delphi to befriend the most powerful Greek state. So Krisis had already made an alliance with the masses, the king of Egypt, and he also got the lesser demon ends.


And then the Spartans, which he believed to be the most powerful Greek state, to agree to stand with him. But crisis was not really content with waiting to see what would happen with the Persians and getting all of these alliances arranged. And he was very impatient. So he just decided that he would go right on ahead and invade Anatolia.


He decided to invade Anatolia, specifically Cappadocia, in the eastern part of the territory, and that meant he had to cross the Harris River. The battle that ensued at Terria was not what anybody had hoped. It sort of ended in a draw after Terria Krisis wanted to regroup. So he had summoned all of those groups that he had allied with to join him in the springtime, five months after he sent these messages out to them so that they would have time to assemble their armies and travel after the winter.


And so then he took his own troops and headed back to Sardis.


But apparently he didn't realize that Cyrus the second and his Persian troops had followed him home when Sardis was attacked by Persia. It came just as a complete surprise decreases. The Lydian scrambled to meet the Persians in battle and. According to Herodotus, Cyrus was afraid of the Libyans, but on the advice of a comedian who was with him, Cyrus put his cavalry on the pack, camels, the camels drove back the Lydian horses because apparently the horses were afraid of the camels and their smell and they retreated even as their riders tried to move them forward into battle.


The Libyan army was forced to fight on foot and ultimately they were defeated by the Persians. Croesus sent word to his allies to come and help, but efforts at assistance were not enough or came too late. This was taken captive and Sardis was taken by the Persians after two weeks of this conflict. So when the Oracle of Delphi had told Krisis about crossing a river and destroying a kingdom, oops, that was his own kingdom that would be destroyed. And that story of the Mughal leading the media is Empire Siris.


The second was half Mayday's and half Persian, the child of two different groups of people. So the Mughal reference was kind of a casual like slurry representation crisis had in his literalism in interpreting all of these words of the Oracle, failed to catch any of the actual meaning.


In the Oracle's words. We will talk about the varied accounts of the end of Chris's life after we pause and have a quick response. A break. In five forty six BCE with his defeat by Cyrus the Second and the Persian Army, the reign of crisis ended.


But what happened after this invasion is something that, again, is a little unclear, and that's because there are a number of different versions of the story.


But Kylies, a poet from Greece, tells the story in the odes of the Phoenicians that Croesus built his own funeral pyre and then tried to burn himself to death on it. And this was, according to his writing, unsuccessful because the gods intervened before he actually met his final end.


Yes, in that history it's written, quote, When he had come to that unexpected day, Krisis had no intention of waiting any longer for the tears of slavery. He had a pyre built before his bronze walled courtyard, and he mounted the pyre with his dear wife and his daughters with beautiful hair. They were weeping inconsolably. He raised his arms to the steep sky and shouted, Overweening deity, where is the gratitude of the gods? Where is Lord Apollo?


So just as Croesus had gotten a trusted servant to really get the flames going, and as his wife and daughters were looking on in tears the day six Mokoena arrives, quote, But when the flashing force of terrible fire began to shoot through the wood, Zus set a dark rain cloud over it and began to quench the golden flame. Nothing is unbelievable, which is brought about by the gods ambition. And Apollo shows up, scoops up creases in his family and carries them north to hyper borya, the land of the Giants where they could live safely.


So we know that this particular version of the story became an important part of Greek law. This moment is represented on a piece of art in the Louvre decorated by Mizen, a painter who decorated bases in Athens using what is known as red figure technique. In my son's work on the base that depicts this particular subject is dated in the 500 to 490 BCE range. So we're talking 50 to 60 years after crisis's defeat would have happened. This Vaisse shows Krisis sitting on a throne, pouring out a libation onto the servant Utamaro.


While uterus is lighting the pyre that the throne has been placed upon, there's an inscription on the vaisse that specifically names the king in the image as Croesus. So it's not a case of like, well, this could be Greeces. The opposite side of the face has a totally different and unrelated scene showing Theseus abducting the Amazon and Tibey. If you're ever in Paris and you want to see it, it is part of the Greek, Etruscan and Roman antiquities collection.


It is on the first floor in the living room 652. So after this happened and Christmas was saved by the gods, the story goes. That crisis became an ally of the leader who followed Cyrus. That was Kamisese the second. And along with Kamisese, the second crisis in this version then traveled to Egypt. That is not the only version of this story where crisis ends up. Friends with his former enemies state the Persian doctors. The Theseus, who was born in Greece, wrote an account that suggests that Christmas actually became part of Cyprus's court and eventually rose to a point of good enough standing that he was appointed governor of Bernini.


Part of what makes the crisis story so tricky to unravel is the fact that he was such a big figure culturally that people essentially started writing fan fiction about him. And now when we reference it hundreds of years later, it's a little hard to know which is fan fiction versus which is actual historical record. And we mentioned one version of his fate that was written by Herodotus just a moment ago, but that was not the only writing that Herodotus did feature increases as a protagonist.


And another story by Herodotus Croesus met with so long the lawmaker of Athens, whose life ended just as Croesus, his reign was starting. And this is really a parable about values and happiness. There's really no evidence that any of it actually took place in the story long. Like a lot of important men of the day decided to visit Croesus when the Lydian King was at the height of his power.


So there's actually sort of a fun side story here about why Solen, the lawmaker, would have been out and about traveling this kind of, you know, justifies how this may have worked in the writing of Herodotus. So this travel was part of a ten year trip. The idea was that one, Solen had made all of the laws that he believed Athens needed to be a fair and just society. He promised to stay away from Athens for ten years so that he would not be tempted to change or repeal any of those laws.


Athens wanted to live by this set of laws that Solen had carefully penned, and so they promised to do so and they were not themselves allowed to make any changes. And interesting governmental experiment, to be sure. And yes, Solen is certainly on my list for his own episode one day.


No telling when that might happen in any case, after received.


So on Craigslist basically spent the whole visit entertaining his visitor and then making the household staff point out all the expensive things that Chris has had just lying around the palace so that someone would understand just how rich and successful the king was.


And after this little exercise in wealth, show and tell Croesus Asselin, quote, My Athenian guest, we have heard a lot about you because of your wisdom and of your wanderings, how, as one who loves learning, you have traveled much of the world for the sake of seeing it. So now I desire to ask you, who is the most fortunate man you have seen? And of course, the king expected that the lawmaker was going to say, oh, it's you for sure, dude.


You have everything. Like, there is no reason anybody could ever be any happier than you. But he did not say that. Solen instead named an Athenian called Tellies as the most fortunate man he knew. King Croesus asked for an explanation of Sullins answer, and the lawmaker told him that Tellis had been part of a prosperous city, a good community, and that he had children who grew up to be good people and all gave him grandchildren and that all of his progeny survived.


And then when tellies died in battle against the people of elucidates, it was a good and honorable death and that he was honored in his burial. So after hearing this crisis, apparently hoping that he would get a second place spot, then asked Solen, who he thought was the next most fortunate man. And Solen gave two men's names in answer Cleophus and Biton of archive. These two brothers had a stable home life. They were physically very strong and they both died after pulling their mother in a wagon five miles to the festival of Hera in Argos, as the oxen that were intended to convey her were not back from the fields in time to do so.


Before Cleophus and Biton died, everyone present commented that their mother had raised great children, and then she prayed to Hera to grant her sons the best thing for a man. And they both died in their sleep that night after the evening's feast. Here's how Herodotus renders the speech about this, quote, crisis. You ask me about human affairs, and I know that the divine is entirely grudging and troublesome to us. Chris, this man is entirely chance to me.


You seem to be very rich and to be king of many people. But I cannot answer your question before I learn that you ended your life. Well, he explains in the story that wealth is not what leads to happiness and that one should focus instead on good fortune in a more expansive sense. So the advice that Solen allegedly gave to Croesus was, quote, count no man happy until his death.


That story actually feeds into a version of the tale of Cyrus.


Have increases burned alive, in which crisis has a moment of revelation related to solons teaching as he is being executed in this version, as Croesus begins to call out solons name while on the pyre, Cyrus asks why that was the name he invoked, and he was moved by crisis's realization that wealth was meaningless in that moment crisis, then released from his execution by Cyrus, then asks Cyrus what his soldiers are doing. When Cyrus responds that they are sacking the city, Kris's tells him, Well, it's your city now.


They're destroying your kingdom, not mine. And then this leads to the whole now we're best friends. Come hang out in my court business in this version.


Cyrus the second also says he will grant Croesus a request, any request, and that the former king asked that his chains be taken to Delphi and that the Pythia be asked why Apollo should have him sent to attack Persia since it doomed him. The Oracle replied that, quote, No one may escape his lot. Not even a God crisis's paid for the sin of his ancestor of the fifth generation before who was led by the guile of a woman to kill his master.


Yeah, things he had no part in.


He was still paying for for the family dues. And that was the whole thing. Ultimately, in that story, I should point out, Creases does kind of take personal responsibility and recognize like, oh, I was the one that got the information and acted on it. But here's the thing. All of these stories of creases being saved at the last minute are considered these days to be simply useful didactic tales. And some versions of the story actually just say that Croesus was killed when Liddy was defeated.


Those are like translations that have been done by other cultures, not not the ones that would be descendants of the Indians, for example.


The boring reality is that creases kind of vanishes from the historical record after the fall of Lydia. Although his grandson Pithiest does show up later in the work of Herodotus, he is also very wealthy, although he gets in some very serious and ugly trouble with Xerxes. But that is a whole other thing.


As for Lydia, it became a satrapy under tablas. But it's. Money kept being managed by a Lydian, which was packed, yes, and if you play Assassin's Creed, that name may be familiar to you as a newcomer to Assassin's Creed. It's not, in fact, familiar to me. Yet with the leverage of that satrapy wealth Pickiest was able to hire Greek mercenaries and a move to revolt against Persian rule, and that ultimately led up to the Persian wars.


Oh, crisis.


Fascinating. But I always got to remember, even in the stories, you know, where it's like. And then he realized that living and life is better.


And I'm like, hey, we got to address this slavery problem. Well, it never gets addressed. Also, there's a lot of stuff in a lot of historical accounts from this time period that really seem to follow literary convention to a point that you're like, you know, that's probably a little embellished.


I think this made a good yarn, but probably not. I mean, I don't want to, you know, invalidate anybody's belief system, but I do not believe that Zus made a rain cloud go just over Greeces pyre.


Yeah, maybe. I know only that I know nothing.


I have a little bit of listener mail that is related to our our White House episode, but is some fun comedy.


OK, this is from our listener, Bob, who writes, I just finished part one of your White House episode. Toward the end, you discussed Jackie Kennedy's remodel and it immediately brought me back to my childhood listening to the VanMeter album, The First Family and Bob links to it on YouTube. You can find it. And he says, if you haven't heard it, I recommend you do. You may be a bit young, but it is hilarious for anyone who grew up in the 60s and remembers the cultural and political realities and references of the times, as are most things, the sensibilities are reflective of the times relevant to your episode.


I believe you will find the track 10 minutes, five seconds in where Jackie gives a White House tour especially interesting. I would make an episode suggestion, but you guys seem to be doing just fine. Maybe next time. That is a very, very interesting thing. VanMeter is someone who is historically very interesting to me. He was a comedian. He became very famous for doing a really good Kennedy impersonation. And so this First Family album is essentially a satire like a satirical version of the Kennedys, including, as Bob mentions, the Jackie Kennedy tour.


And it's very much that exaggerated, like sighing, slightly sleepy sounding Jackie Kennedy.


And he did a couple of albums actually about the Kennedys and then, of course, stopped after the assassination because he thought it was in poor taste. But if you are interested in VanMeter, because I really like, you know, old school comedians stories, Mo Rocca does a show called Mabbett.


You IRI's with Mo Rocca and he has a great VanMeter episode. So I highly recommend it.


And it is a really good Kennedy impersonation that that episode that Mo Rocca did starts with a story of somebody who knew JFK in his car hearing. What he did not know at the time was this comedy troupe doing Kennedy.


And he thought that what he was hearing was something the president was actually saying and it was temporarily very upsetting. That is the scoop. Go check out that Mo Rocca episode. And also, you know, I also encourage people, if they haven't done it, to go check out the the actual tour that Jackie Kennedy gave for ABC of the White House, because it is quite interesting. I also will say this. We recorded, as I said, at the top of that episode.


That White House episode, we recorded it in response to the announcement that the Rose Garden was getting redone and we didn't, we it was completely by accident that it came out like the day of the review.


Yeah, that was just a blind luck coincidence situation. Like just to be super clear, like we had not seen what the actual reveal looked like when we recorded it. And what was kind of hilarious to me was we got we keyway all the episodes before we release them and we got all the emails about curing the episodes, I think on the day that the unveiling happens. But just because of the way my day worked, like I Q8 all the episodes, it's like, okay, that's really cool.


Then I was like, oh, this is funny now that I'm looking at the computer again first. But it actually looks like now it's just super strange and weird.


Yeah. I don't know about you. I was not expecting it to be finished that quickly after it was announced. It was pretty fast. Yeah. I didn't have a good sense of timeline. I did not think it would be done before.


Right. But, you know, we've watched enough home improvement shows to know that if you get a team of very energetic landscapers, they can redo anything in forty eight hours. So. And anyway, again, I hope that offered people a little bit of solace if they are chagrined at the new design or if they've been chagrined at any previous redesign.


Just remember, it is always in motion. The White House and its grounds were always intended to constantly change reassuring.


If you don't like the way something is looking at the moment, odds are good it will change in the future. You can write to us if you'd like to. You could do that at History podcast it I heart radio dotcom. You can also find us everywhere on social media as missed in history. And we would love it if you would subscribe to the show. You can do that on the I Heart radio app at Apple podcasts or wherever it is you listen.


Stuff you missed in history class is the production of I Heart Radio for more podcasts from My Heart radio visit by her radio app Apple Podcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite shows. This is the secret syllabus podcast, I am a YouTube and a student at Belmont University. I'm a YouTube and an international student at Cornell University and probably just like you, I remember the good old times when I was a college student and then 20/20 hit.


How are I supposed to make friends while staying six feet apart? What will happen to the parties and tailgates?


What about my college worth? Will I just be sent home again? Home again at home again.


So that's where the secret syllabus comes in. Hi, I'm Hannah Ashton. And I'm Katie Tracy. We're here to fill in everything they missed in our college curriculum, just like you were confronting the unknown.


And if we're being honest, we need all the advice we can get.


Listen to the Secret Service. Everyone stay through late November. Our first episode drops on September 9th on the I Heart radio app, Apple podcast, or wherever you get your podcast. No prerequisites necessary. See you after class. Hi, I'm David Plouffe.


And I'm Steve Schmidt. We're the host of a new podcast called Battleground. In it, we'll try and answer the three questions that are essential to understanding American elections in the core battleground states. Who are the campaigns targeting? How are they targeting them and why?


In 2008, I ran Senator McCain's campaign for president and David managed Senator Obama's we understand elections as well as anyone else in America, better than almost anyone.


And we've seen enough elections to know this one is far from over. Trump does better in battleground states than in the rest of the country.


Plus, the pandemic is an unprecedented wild card poll. Systematically underestimate Trump's support. And I guarantee you you'll have a few October surprises up his sleeve in Battleground.


We'll go state by state and give you in-depth reporting on the Trump and Biden strategies so that you understand what they're doing and why they're doing.


Battleground is a podcast from the weekend. Listen to Battleground, starting on September 14th on the I Heart radio app, Apple podcast or wherever you get your podcast.