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Ever wondered why there are two ways to spell doughnut's or why some people think you can find water underground just by wandering around with a stick? Believe it or not, this is stuff you should know. You know the podcast with over a billion listeners. It's now for your eyes so you can read it. Stuff you should know. An incomplete compendium of mostly interesting things covers everything from the origin of the Murphy bed to why people get lost, become the most interesting person you know.


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Welcome to stuff you missed in History Class A production of I Heart Radio. Hello and welcome to the podcast, I'm Holly Fry, and I'm Tracy B. Wilson, and this is, of course, part two of our episode, Jean-Baptiste Denis and the development of blood transfusions in 17th century Paris.


You can call it part deux since this very French today.


We are jumping right in to part two of this story and the work that Denis was doing, developing transfusion techniques. If you have not listened to the first part, this one is going to be super confusing. So we definitely recommend that you do that because we're getting right back to the action.


If somehow you have not listened to the first part of this, but you have listened to the way back in the archive interview called "Blood Work", which has some of the same themes like this is way a lot of detail that was not part of that particular episode.


Yeah, that episode is with an author named Holly Tucker about her work writing a book about this subject, which I used for as one of my sources. And it gets into a lot of other aspects of book writing and researching and what was going on in the medical progression of humanity at the time.


Whereas I really, really wanted to kind of break down this whole narrative of Denis sudden rise to fame in medicine and what that was all about and the things that were going on in Paris at the time in the medical community, that I imagine the like the subset of people who had somehow heard that earlier, two parter, but not part one of this might be really small, but just in case, in the last episode we talked about Denis second animal to human transfusion, which took place at the home of Henri Louis de Montmor.


And today we're going to just jump right back into that moment and the winter of sixteen, 67. As you will recall, Danny and his accomplices had kidnapped the subject of this transfusion attempt. That was a man named Antoine Maurois. And they had given him a transfusion of calf's blood against his will in an attempt to cure his mental illness.


And one more one woke up the morning after the transfusion. He who had been, again, an unwilling subject, did seem to have improved. He was more docile and he was less prone to outbursts. In all likelihood, of course, he was probably just weakened from the ordeal of the night before. But Danny, in his zeal, took the change in temperament as a sign that he was really on to something and that more war could perhaps be cured completely if they gave him a second transfusion.


This second transfusion was less tumultuous than the first, which had taken place just two days earlier. It was once again held at memoir's home, but this time at Dani's insistence, there were fewer spectators.


It does seem like.


At least cover your own butt idea, the few who were allowed were doctors and surgeons. Additionally, the patients, again, by no choice of his own, did not resist.


Yeah, I think more than covering his tail when he really wanted was we we discussed in the last episode that it was chaotic with that first one because there were so many people who wanted to be there and actually see what they believed could be history being made, that it actually kind of hindered Donny and Marie, his surgeon's abilities to really perform the work they were doing. So I he was not afraid of bad press or conflict. So I think it had more to do with just like I need people out of my way.


Yeah, yeah.


Emery could not find a vein in Maurois right arm. And he and Danny came up with a number of reasons that that would be none of which, of course, related to their prior transfusion, which they had done on that arm.


So they decided to use the left arm and they were successful and they were able this time to get more calf's blood into Marwah.


But he once again had a bad reaction almost as soon as they began this time, Maurois was able to pretty calmly verbalize the sensations he was feeling. He described pain in his kidneys, a feeling that he was choking and that he was nauseated. And once again, the transfusion was stopped. Maurois vomited several times over the next two hours before passing out. So we should mention up front that this next account is the way that Danny recorded this story. And that's about Maurois as they found him the next morning, seemed like a completely different man, quiet, alert, polite, able to hold a conversation without any of the behavior that they had come to associate with him.


And the preceding months, he asked to see a priest so that he could get a confession, which he did. And the priest was amazed by this transformation. Maurois wife, Pareene Wiwa, who had not known where her husband had been taken, was brought into the mummer home and she was shocked as well. The two of them were described as embracing, and Antoine Marwah described what he had been through. So incidentally, if you remember from the last episode, we talk about Maurois having kind of developed his issues with his mental health as a result of having been kind of scorned and mocked in a love affair gone wrong.


So you may be like, well, what is up with the wife? Marwan Pareene had actually been married after he started having these issues. This marriage had been arranged by his family. They thought that the stability of a regular home life would cure him of his anguish. And Pareene, who had endured unending abuse from her husband, had actually been searching for him around Paris and learned of his involvement in Danny's experiment through idle chatter on the street. And that was how she ended up in front of the more estate.


Jean-Baptiste Dinny was convinced that he had just changed medicine forever and that he was about to be one of the most famous men in the world. That was sort of correct, although things did not play out the way he thought they were going to do.


So after being allowed to stay with her husband at Momma's home for two weeks while Danny monitored his health, the more wars were sent home, Pauline was not convinced that Antwaan was cured.


She saw how different he was, but she also feared that this was not a permanent fix and she was entirely correct. After two months, Maurois fever spiked and his behavior reverted to the violence and unpredictability that had preceded his transfusions. Pareene went to his home in Paris and demanded he give her husband a third transfusion. This time, the procedure was performed in the Marawa home, where, curiously, Pareene already had everything arranged, including the needed tools for the transfusion and a new calf.


This sounds incredibly suspicious, and it is given that the Maurois were pretty poor, Danny initially refused to do this, suspecting that something was up with all this. But Pareene showed the doctor the bruises she had from her husband's abuse. He acquiesced and went ahead with this transfusion, although by his own account, this entire scene really troubled him. And there were complications.


As Danny and his surgeon Imray were preparing Maurois, Muoi had a seizure. Sometimes this is also written up as a series of seizures. They had already inserted a tube into his arm and they had made an incision in his foot so that he could be bled of bad blood exiting the body just before the seizure happened. So as soon as it took place, they determined that they had to close all of his incisions. They had not at this point made any incisions in the animal and the transfusion never happened.


And then the next day, Antoine Moore was dead to and MRI compared notes. They wanted to make sure they had not been the cause of his death. They also returned to the Morawa home to speak with Pareene and get a full account of Antoine Maurois behavior and physical condition. In the hours between when they left and when he died, she really did not cooperate. Emara attempted to begin an autopsy and an argument ensued. Pareene ejected the two men from her home.


Denise assured her that there would be an autopsy, but Pareene buried Antoine's body later on that day to thwart any such plan. Yeah, Dinni returned to their house the next morning and it was like he's already buried. So Maurois death was in what sounds like a very MCB thing, welcomed by the old fashioned Parisian doctors who had been suspicious of Dinny and transfusion from the beginning. There was a feeling that at last this upstarts ambition had tripped him up for a practice that was controversial.


To begin with, the death of Denise most famous subject, made even his most ardent supporters doubt their position. In a letter to the publisher of Philosophical Transactions, King Louis, the Fourteenth secretary of state, wrote of Disney and Imray, quote, Their mischance will discredit transfusion and no one will dare to try it in the future on men.


He himself had wondered if Pillaring had killed her husband and had used him and Emara to cover her tracks. Things just didn't add up the surgical instruments and medical supplies that she had ready in their home, this new calf purchased and ready for the transfusions, all of this. Two months after Mawas death, it was Pareene herself who finally answered these pretty puzzling questions for Danny, sort of parleyed.


Marwah paid a visit to Danny and she spilled her story, or at least part of it. She told him that a group of physicians had approached her after Antoine's death, offering her money to testify that Dineh had killed him. But she also told Danny that if he couldn't help her financially, she would have to take their money. As had been the case in The Marwah home, Dinni Empowering argued, and she left. His next step was to file a complaint against Maurois widow for extortion, as well as against the mystery physicians who attempted to bribe her.


He could not name any man specifically. A hearing was held on April 17th of sixteen sixty eight. A judge was tasked with sorting out the accusations against Danny for having possibly murdered Maurois and Denise. Counter complaint against Pareene Bawa. The night was the first witness who was called. He described all of the details of Maurois, first two transfusions and how they had appeared to everyone to be a complete success. He also testified that the third transfusion had been halted before it even began because the fourth seizure and we're going to get into the testimony that was given by the widow, Pauline Marois, next.


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Kathleen Maurois was the next person to be questioned after Denene and she talked about how hard she tried to be a good and dutiful wife, she told the judge of how Antwaun had once again become unpredictable.


Just a few weeks after the seeming success of his transfusions at the mama estate. She had cared for him when he had come home from carousing and she had endured his abuse. And as part of this testimony, she also disclosed that she had consented to sexual intercourse with her husband on four occasions after they had returned home from their time in Paris. This was intended to be evidence of her devotion, but it actually undermined her case. Had expressly forbidden sexual activity as dangerous to Maurois health while he continued to recover.


Dinni had not wanted him drinking or carousing either. So basically this kind of helped Denise case that he was not to blame for what had happened. The case continued to turn against Perry Marwah from their neighbors, testified that, yes, the couple fought and Antoine could be violent, but that Pareene had also struck her husband in 17th century France. That was pretty damning. There was also suspicion among the neighbors, but no evidence that Pareene might have been poisoning Antoine.


This is not a time in Paris when poisonings are pretty common, and so accusations of poisonings were also rampant. So suspicious neighbors in that regard were that was almost a foregone conclusion. Yeah, I didn't I didn't know about this when we started working on it. And it suddenly overlapped so much that we've talked about on criminal. The this is like I can't get away from poisoning, poisoning everywhere. It's just everywhere I turn. So the police chief appointed by King Louis, the 14 Niccola, like me, took particular interest in this poisoning testimony because his efforts to curb the city's poisoning problem had been just exhausting and frustrating for him.


And both Donny and Marie told the judge that they had heard Antoine Marois claim prior to their first transfusion treatment with him, that he believed his wife was trying to kill him.


So despite everyone having believed that Maguire was a mad man during that time, this still was very, very bad for him.


So it was believed that Mrs. Marwah had been serving her husband arsenic and soup and small doses, and that that would kill him slowly and in a way that presented as any number of other common ailments. And incidentally, being fed arsenic in small amounts can also cause delirium and seizures based on a whole lot of circumstantial evidence. Pareene Marwah was charged with murder and taken to a prison cell. But we just don't know what happened to her after that. The judge did believe that they had sussed out what had happened and that Perrin had plotted against her husband.


But he also thought there was more to the story. He really wanted more answers about how Pascaline had gotten the poison. Arsenic was readily available for purchase as a means of controlling rodent populations, but the memoirs were, by all accounts, penniless. So he believed that someone must have provided it. And the mystery physician she had told Danny about had also apparently spoken with at least one of her neighbors offering to pay for a sworn statement about Morcos death implicating Danny.


So Danny was cleared of all charges. The judge ruled that Maurois had not died due to negligence on Jean Baptiste NI's part because he had been poisoned with arsenic and that Pareene Marwah might have been abetted by a. transfusion saboteurs.


We do not know the names of the Sabater doctors who Danny referred to as the, quote, enemies of the experiment. Numerous members of the Parisian medical establishment had spoken out about Denise procedures, and many of them have been theorized as likely culprits. The specific information has been lost, if any had been named, as have the court records from Denise trial, although some of the supporting documentation remains. But it did appear definitely that other men of medicine in Paris were so mortified by transfusion that they would rather kill a patient than risk the experiment, succeeding some of the possible suspects.


Pierre Martin Dila Martin, where he had written numerous letters to high ranking officials describing transfusion as, quote, directly to the contrary and opposite of God's wishes because it destroys his living images. Martin Year had also written to Danny that Satan was revealing himself into his work.


Another man who had become friends with Martin know through their mutual disdain for transfusion, and Danny in particular was Gillham. Let Me Let Me had also written a number of letters to various doctors in Paris about the horrors of transfusion. And after Maurois death, he wrote a letter to a doctor. Her name's Leanne Morrow, sounding almost giddy about Dani's demise, saying, quote, The miserable adventure of the madman's death will be enough to overturn all of his beautiful imaginations and to ruin entirely his high hopes.


Both Lamey and Martin Year were mentioned in a piece of writing by a lawyer named Louis Dabbous. It was titled Reflections by Louis DiBiase, a lawyer in parliament on disputes concerning transfusion. He described how divided the medical community had become on this issue to the point that things seemed downright dangerous. And he believed the two names doctors had been conspiring against me.


Yeah, if you go back in the archive and listen to the episodes with Holly Tucker, she talks about discovering this piece of writing which had not really been known about prior to her research on the book. It had just been kind of sitting in archives. So it was kind of a big moment in terms of a really kind of solving what had played out here. But to return to the events of April 17, 16. Sixty eight, the next part of the ruling that the judge made was far less favorable for Danny.


The judge declared it illegal to use animal blood in transfusions to humans in the cases wrap up in sixteen sixty eight, unless that usage was sanctioned by the Faculty of Medicine of Paris. And that meant that the very men who had been vocally decrying the use of transfusion were the ones who decided if it could be done, which they were absolutely never going to do.


So we should mention that the entire idea of transfusion was anathema at the time, not because of the scientific problems with it. Those existed, but there still wasn't enough knowledge about the workings of blood and the circulatory system to really come to the conclusion that it was or wasn't a scientifically sound idea at that point. The fears had more to do with moral and religious debate, there were concerns that someone who had a transfusion of animal blood might experience transmutation and develop characteristics of the animal from which the blood was sourced.


Yeah, we mentioned earlier on in talking about the story that there was a patient who claimed that he was taking on animal characteristics and how problematic it was in this whole thing, brought up arguments about identity and what it means to be human and what it might mean to change the human form and whether this was reaching too far into science to places that were really the domain of God. Another layer of the religious issues that surrounded transfusion in its debate in predominantly Catholic France was the fact that Protestant England had started doing it first.


So it was automatically viewed with a little bit of suspicion. It's also important to note that it was not acceptable in any sort of consensus to take blood from other humans. Things like dissections and autopsies were generally performed on the bodies of people who had been criminals. That's a trend that we have talked about on the show before. While there were physicians and scientists on both sides of that debate, many, like Danny, thought that animals were a better option.


So really, this ruling just shut down any experiments or work in transfusions completely. Two years later, the letter of the law made the use of blood from humans as an option, not a matter of inference, but clearly spelled out all transfusions were banned in France. So for Dinni, this ruling in the initial case was a huge blow. It meant that the work that he was invested in, that he had made his name famous in Paris with was essentially over.


We'll talk about Danny's efforts to be able to continue his transfusion work after we first pause for a word from our sponsors.


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Now, that is true. Jean-Baptiste Dinni argued against the decision that animal to human transfusions were banned and he actually tried to rally the medical community to the cause.


He kind of used his successes as evidence that, no, we really should continue doing this work. And he started a petition to try to overturn the ruling, but he got fewer than 10 signatures from the physicians of Paris. He next got honoree Louis Damanhour. Moore, his financial supporter, involved in this campaign, more through his rank and wealth, was on better footing to try to use the French legal system to his advantage than Danny was. He was still considered an outsider with a mixed reputation.


Additionally, my mother had a law degree and he had worked as an appointed government official. And this approach had some success with memoir's assistance. And he was able to take his case to Parliament.


And the strategy in their approach was really pretty savvy. Even though this was technically an appeal, they opted to plead their case in the Shambhala. This is where issues of guilds and hospitals and universities were heard. And this was really smart for two reasons. One, it kind of sidestepped all the seedier criminal aspects of the Marwah case, and it led to any focus on the ability to pursue transfusion research as part of advancing science and medicine to a case that came before the growing chambre just a year earlier about using chemical remedies in medicine had gone against the wishes of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Paris.


The conservative school had wished to keep chemical remedies out of medical practice, but parliament had ruled them permissible. And Danny was hoping that his case would have a similar outcome in disregarding old guard physicians in favor of progress. The trial convened on November 28, 16, 69. The public was not allowed in, but the trial had been publicized all over the city and it was as anticipated as any piece of entertainment. Of course, the knee was famous and this work was controversial.


The death of Maurois and the twists and turns and the prior hearing had been the talk of the city for months. So people from the court of King Louis the Fourteenth, all the way down to the lowest class, were really eager to see what happened next.


The case was presented before Judge Martin Molaim. The legal case made by Denise Representative Cristian de la Union was described as being exceptionally good. I think it's cited in one instance as being a masterpiece. But despite the preparation and the presentation and everyone talking about what a strong case it was, Molay refused to overturn the previous decision. The two physicians we mentioned a moment ago, Mamy and Martin Yere never faced any real investigation regarding whether they had been involved in more death or in trying to bribe the widow Pareene to help them ruin Denene.


Let Me was suspected by some of his peers as possibly wanting revenge on Dinny after the two men had a public argument in the streets. But let me did what was probably the smart thing. As accusations started to really bubble, he swore that he would neither speak nor write of the matter any longer, saying, quote, I think I have said enough. And that was that for him.


Yeah, he's not one of those people who says, I'm never going to talk about this again and then tweet six more things later, write a 400 page book about it.


Martin Matanya was far less restrained. Not only did he continue to denounce Dinni and transfusion, he also wrote that he had met with Pareene Marwah to discuss whether she should seek legal action against any for her husband's death. He also named the apothecary where Pareene had gotten her arsenic, this essentially is like a confession, but it was never pursued as such. He referred to Dinni as a transfusionist monster. And in a letter to Louis, the 14th first minister of state, Jean-Baptiste Gulbahar, he suggested that anyone, quote, whose inclination is to pull and push blood should basically be killed.


I think the actual phrasing is that they should be taken to the Caribbean and sacrificed after that second judge refused to overturn the judgment against transfusion. Martin, there seems to have stepped away from medicine entirely following the appeal trial. Much more fell into a serious depression he liked and he had lost his dream. But without transfusion, his science academy could not keep going. It was the last setback. Accounts by his family indicate that he had to be cajoled into letting people care for him if he would not care for himself.


And he never really returned to his former self. His son took over the family finances and that was disastrous.


Ari Lucida mama died in 16 79 as her Dinni after the appeal, he kind of went back to the life he had before his sudden rise to fame, teaching medical students in his home. He also turned his attention to judicial astrology, in which the measurements of movements of heavenly bodies were being used to predict the future. Dinni was critical of the practice, writing, quote, Predictions will always keep you in a state of suspense, in a state of impatient hope.


And this hope will deprive you of everything that is good and agreeable in life. So clearly, by the time this was all over, he was not the same ambitious man he had been when he first got into medicine. Jean-Baptiste Zenny died in Paris in seventy four. He was 69.


After France's anti transfusion rulings, other European countries followed suit, even in places where there weren't rulings or laws against it. Transfusions were abandoned by the scientific community as an area of exploration.


For nearly 150 years, there have been some references to Philadelphia Dr Philip Saing Physick, achieving the first successful human blood transfusion in 1795. And some sources may also note he didn't publish any information about his work. And that makes it a little bit difficult to verify. In a 1942 article about transfusion history, Dr. Syrus C. Sturges wrote that the earliest mention he ever found of the physical transfusion was in the Philadelphia Journal of Medicine and Physical Sciences from an 18 25 abstract, which mentions that as a footnote, Physick was notoriously light on record keeping and writing up his work.


So this case continues to be just a footnote. Yeah, we don't really know if if that ever happened. The first recorded instance of human blood being used to save a patient is in 1818. That procedure was performed by obstetrician James Blundell, who was frustrated at having lost patients to post-partum hemorrhaging. He wrote, quote, I have seen a woman dying for two or three hours together, convinced in my own mind that no known remedy could save her.


The sight of these moving cases led me to transfusion. Blondell had started his experiments somewhat as Dinni and other Predecessors' had with animals and humans. Although his tests involved giving human blood to dogs with mortal results, he quickly determined that blood from one class of animal could not be used on another.


His success rate with human to human transfusions was only 50 percent, but it got the attention of the medical community and jumpstarted the field of transfusion science. Again, one of the big developments in the century that followed in what is often cited as ushering in the modern era of blood transfusions was the discovery of what became the ABO blood group system. Austrian doctor Carl Len Steiner identified three types, which he called A, B and C beginning in 1900. His first publications on it were nineteen one.


So you'll also see that cited as the date the group had one type of antigen, the B group had another, and the C group, which was eventually changed to O sometime later, had no antigens. The AB group, which has both A and B antigens, was identified by Alfred Castelo and Adriano's Italy in 1982. Lance Steiner went on to win the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1930 based on his work with blood groups. With that, one piece of the blood puzzle figured out, things progressed rapidly with large steps forward develops during times of war, new ways to transfer blood from patient to patient were developed, as well as better storage and preservation methods for blood, and eliminated the need for the donor and the recipient to be in close physical proximity.


The first blood bank opened in St. Petersburg, Russia, which was Leningrad at the time in 1932, the first blood bank in the U.S. opened at Cook County Hospital in Chicago. In 1937, the American Association of Blood Banks formed in 1947 and established the Abebe Clearinghouse that is now called the National Blood Exchange in 1953. And this created a system that enabled blood banks to exchange blood to meet the needs of patients around the country. The Abebe also published standards for a blood transfusion service, which evolved into standards for blood banks and transfusion services on subsequent printings.


Today, transfusions are a vital part of medicine. While whole blood transfusions are still performed, it's more efficient to separate the blood into its various components for medical use. And that way, one donation can be used for multiple patients who have different needs. According to the Red Cross, an estimated 36000 units of red blood cells are needed in the U.S. every day, and nearly 21 million blood components are transfused in the U.S. each year.


And according to the World Health Organization, one hundred and eighteen point four million blood donations are collected around the world annually. 40 percent of those donations come from high income countries.


And while Jean-Baptiste Dinni had to abandon the procedure that made him famous in Paris for a few years in the 60s, he does actually have a legacy that reaches us in modern medicine, one that most people probably have in their first aid kit at home. In his later work, he develops diptych. That is correct. He invented a means to stop the bleeding, although he doesn't really get credited with that invention very much.


Even if you look up like if you do a Web search for inventor of Stipek, I found nothing. Yeah. So it was more a matter of using the research that had been done in his biographies. It's an interesting story.


It's such a an intriguing story at a level unlike unlike we have ever quite probably not.


I wouldn't say we've ever quite, but it's not terribly common. We talk a lot about scientific developments and some of the conflicts around them, but very rarely do they evolve into a murder case that has twists and turns and like a shadowy group of people orchestrating things.


And yeah, yeah.


Ultimately putting an end to a part of medical science for Yev Century.


I'm also interested in in how the moral and religious objections to transfusion evolved over time, because there are still people living today who will who will not have transfusions for religious or moral reasons, but not like with the same explanation as why it was unacceptable in the 17th century for the most part.


Yeah. I mean, I this is pure speculation on my part. I haven't really done research into this. I think the work that was being done in obstetrics that saved a number of mothers early on in the 19th century, and that work being published was probably a pretty significant shift in the perception because it is hard to argue against something that is saving a mother and not orphaning a child. Hmm. That would be my guess. For less guesswork, though, I have an email game.


Since we're starting a new year, I'm trying to stick to the email and it is about something I'm hoping to do this year, which is Rugaru Fest. This is from our listener, Mandy, who writes first. I want to say what a bright light your podcast has been for me for many years, and especially right now, I had a baby back in June and between a newborn and being stuck at home, things can feel awfully difficult at times.


But your podcast has helped me feel more to the wider world in history, which has been immensely helpful for my mental health. Congratulations. Also, I can't imagine how stressful it would be to become a new parents in the midst of a pandemic. So I'm glad things seem to be going well, she says. I'm writing about your episode on three hellhounds, specifically the part about the Rugaru and Rugaru Fest. I am from South Louisiana and currently live in New Orleans at your Bob Hope live show at the World War Two Museum.


I was the person in the audience who had lost her voice. I also work in the non-profit sector and I am friends with Jonathan Ferrey. When I heard you mention him on the show, I immediately texted him to let him know that Rugaru Fest was being featured on your podcast. And I sent him the episode and he was thrilled. It feels worth mentioning that he is as delightful as you might imagine a person who created a Rugaru festival would be.


And then he has a pet, Nutrio named Banir, which I love.


She says, I appreciated your showcasing the festival. Too often, Louisiana is reduced to a sort of muddled version of Bourbon Street writ large. But as the festival highlights, we have a rich mix of communities. Some might say a gumbo, forgive me. And the bayou region is home to an incredible amount of precolonial in American history, some of which is literally disappearing before our eyes. The festival supports efforts to teach and learn all about Louisiana's disappearing coast and heritage.


So it felt especially apropos for stuff you missed in history. And then she gives us some suggestions. I thank you for this lovely email. I'm so glad that the the folks that put Rugaru Fest together were OK with that and liked it, because you always worry when you mention something contemporary that someone will go, you're a jerk. That's not correct. No. Yeah, right. I mean, it happens. And I really am intent on going this year, presuming that we are in a place where travel is available because it sounds like the best time ever.


Especially knowing how steeped in history the whole thing is. I'm into it. If you would like to write to us, tell us about more festivals we can put on our docket after travel becomes a reality.


Again, you could do that at History podcast. It I heart radio dot com. You can also find us on.


Social media is biased in history and if you'd like to subscribe to the podcast that is easy as pie, you could do it on the I Heart radio app, an apple podcast or wherever it is you listen. Stuff you missed in history class is the production of I Heart Radio for more podcasts from My Heart radio visit by her radio app Apple Podcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite shows. Ever wondered why there are two ways to spell doughnut's or why some people think you can find water underground just by wandering around with a stick?


Believe it or not, this is stuff you should know. You know the podcast with over a billion listeners. It's now for your eyes so you can read it. Stuff you should know. An incomplete compendium of mostly interesting things covers everything from the origin of the Murphy bed to why people get lost, become the most interesting person you know. Now at stuff you should know dotcom or wherever books are sold.


Friends, Dancing with the Stars, partners and now podcast hosts Backstreet Boys, A.J. McLean and Cheryl Burke bring you pretty messed up.


The show talks about pretty much anything, everything. Love, life, drugs, sex, rock and roll, you name it. Pretty messed up. Doesn't hold back. It's a hot mess with the guidance, mentorship and watchful eye of their friend Rene Elizondo. We get pretty deep and we just talk about everything. Listen to pretty messed up on the radio app or wherever you get your podcasts.